New heating season not far off. Respectively, today we discuss questions of heating of optimization of power consumption.
1. What should be heating systems in a modern cottage? What options and combinations of oven, electric, gas and geothermal heating are demanded today?
2. What «house preparations» and recipes of designers and builders allow to provide economic service and safety of residents of the house? Whether elements of automatic equipment and the engineering systems providing safety and if are demanded, which are demanded today?
3. Deduce a formula of the optimum house meeting the following requirements: profitability in service, power efficiency, comfort and safety.
During the summer we interviewed heads of the construction organizations and we try to deduce a formula of the optimum house of the first half of the XXI century. We spoke about progressive and traditional materials, quality of contract works, features of projects. Really, in private housing construction the quantum leap is noted. The cottages which are under construction in our region today, essentially differ from constructions of ten years’ prescription, many of which became the real headache for house owners.
There were new architectural trends and tendencies (see the review of projects best-sellers on page 120). The phrase «the clever house» gets other sounding. The house should be reasonable and ergonomic, inexpensive in construction and operation. Here definition «reasonable architecture» more approaches.
And the requirement of "rationality" belongs both to respectable, and to democratic cottages. Today even the well-founded house owner if he does not wish that the house of his dream became a source of problems for the following generations, aspires to optimize expenses on construction and operation. From here — a fashion on direct dvuskatny roofs which do not need to be cleaned from snow and leaves, mansard rooms in which all space under rafters, energy saving wall materials, refusal from superfluous, demanding continuous heating, rooms is used. The built-in garages replaced with canopies, bathing complexes with pools removed from socles to separate constructions, and instead of guest rooms today’s house owners prefer guest houses.
Today neither in Europe, nor in Russia it is not fashionable to burn down gasoline in tons, and gas and firewood — cubic meter. Optimization of expenses for heating is reached not only refusal of the superfluous areas needing maintenance of constant temperature. If, for example, the guest house is not maintained, it is rather simple to protect it from a promerzaniye, and qualitatively warmed walls, energy saving double-glazed windows, system of direct electroheating and the primitive processor easily consult with this task. Modern technologies allow to operate them distantly: on the Internet or the GSM module, and a good fireplace can quickly bring such house into an inhabited condition. In that, as to houses for continuous accommodation, preference of Russians and Europeans disperse. A trend of the last years for Northern Europe — geothermal systems of heating on the basis of thermal pumps: until recently they were attribute of the luxurious house, but now became almost the same mass phenomenon, as the refrigerator. Today it is difficult to present more southern European regions without solar collectors and solar batteries — but these are obviously auxiliary systems, and it is obvious not for the Russian Northwest.
Poll of the Petersburg builders showed that dream of the Russian house owner today is connection to a gas pipe, and the compact gas copper is perceived as the most economic and "problemless" option. But it is good, only if in the settlement there is the main gas pipeline. On the second place on popularity — indirect electroheating (an electrocopper + water "heat-insulated floor"). But at deficiency of capacities and interruptions in power supply optimization of power consumption and creation of reserve power supplies become difficult engineering tasks. Nevertheless it is that case when that is called and walls help. Experience of last winter showed that power effective houses at interruptions and malfunctions in heating systems even in severe frosts do not freeze for weeks.
And nevertheless there is an impression that the Russian house owners are familiar with a problem of deficiency and high cost of energy carriers only by hearsay. Inhabitants of the Baltic and East European states, for example, very actively exchange experience of independent manufacturing of vetro-power installations in Internet forums and do thermal pumps of the written-off industrial conditioners.
Mikhail Istomin, director general of the Livinvud company:
1. The solution of a question of heating depends on possibilities both external engineering networks, and owners of a country cottage. The most economic is the option of connection of a country house to gas heating but provided that on a site there are all necessary communications. The most expensive is house heating at the expense of the electric power.
As to a market segment at which the Livinvud company works, for its target audience minimization of expenses for house service after all is important. We try to consider the main requirements of our clients for this reason we build power effective houses. Construction of frame and panel houses belongs to such technologies from SIP panels and houses from a kleeny bar section 92 x 145 mm with a heater. For example, it is possible to warm the frame and panel house in the area of 150 sq.m by means of an electric copper in capacity of 6 kW which after warming up of rooms will consume capacity about 0,5 kW in a mode of maintenance of temperature. Owners of the frame and panel houses erected with use of SIP panels, constantly save on monthly payments for heating. And all because houses from SIP quickly get warm at the expense of a low thermal capacity, low heat conductivity of walls, absence of «cold bridges».
2. We carry out any wishes of the client on installation of systems «clever house», but construction of houses under final finishing recently is, as a rule, more demanded. Internal furnish, engineering and installation of necessary systems of safety leave on the second stage. To minimize costs of house operation, we provide in advance to clients the list of standard power effective projects of the houses providing profitability of service.
3. All three components, namely: profitability of service, power efficiency and comfort are one of key parameters at a choice of houses target audience by which the company is guided. As much as possible to satisfy needs of clients, for this direction all departments of our company work: from design bureau, production at plant in Tikhvin, letting out factory sets of power effective houses, to the construction brigades working at objects. Each standard project of houses from a kleeny bar or frame and panel houses of the Livinvud company surely corresponds to this "formula" and as a result we build to clients «the dream house»!
Maria Razumovskaya, head of a sales department of the company "Infotekstra":
1. No doubt, the fireplaces (furnaces) creating comfort, heat and a cosiness in the house, are demanded by all customers without an exception. Other options of heating can be considered depending on possibilities and desire of the consumer. In the presence of the main gas geothermal heating loses on primary investments. Electric heating is rather expensive in operation. In our cottage settlement of "NEVO" constructed for men of means, we tried to provide the most convenient combination of oven heating (fireplaces) and gas. That who watchfully treats gas, it is offered to heat the house by means of an electricity. The cheapest option — an electric copper with the water heating, the most expensive — electric batteries, heat-insulated floors. In our settlement (30 kW on each house) allow to satisfy capacity and such "whim" of the consumer. Besides, considering an abnormal heat of summer of 2010, it is necessary to take care of ventilation and air cooling indoors that it is impossible to make at a lack of an elektromoshchnost. Therefore, an electricity — very important energy carrier for country conditions without which it is impossible to provide comfortable accommodation in country houses. It is important at a choice of option of heating also, as far as the house "energosberegayemy".
2. As the basic for economic and safe service of the house I consider the competent project and a right choice of materials for construction, and also use of energy saving engineering systems. Among systems of safety different types of the alarm system, video surveillance are demanded. In "NEVO" settlement safety is provided with professional security structure, on perimeter of the settlement the protection is established, video surveillance, a round-the-clock post on entry into the settlement is organized, protection of each house is carried out.
3. In our widths profitability of service and power efficiency of the house in big degree are provided with competently picked up materials for construction, use of the combined material for construction of walls of the house, energy saving multichamber glasses in windows, a rekuperatsiya in ventilation and heating systems. In the conditions of steady growth of cost of energy carriers it is necessary at design and construction to fight for each spent kilowatt of the electric power. It is possible when using secondary heat, lighting by light-emitting diode lamps, an arrangement of fireplaces (furnaces) taking into account heating of the maximum volume. Essentially also availability of the main gas on a site, allowing considerably to lower costs of house service.
Roman Zotov, the director for company development "Ollikaysen Rus" in the Moscow region:
1. The modern private house should be most approached on reliability of communications to the city apartment. As last winter, in our widths not showed a rarity frosts «for thirty». From here and rigid requirements to heating system. Nobody would like to arrive to the house and to find out that the house выстужен, and water in cranes froze. Therefore the main thing, on what we pay attention of our customer — this possible duplication of sources of heat. If there is a possibility to design the system of heating allowing without serious consequences and operatively to be switched from one type of fuel on another, it is necessary to do it surely. While, on our statistics, wins the main gas, it has no competitors. The second place is divided by diesel coppers and coppers on firm fuel. Among heatgiving systems on the first place classical radiators, behind them go systems of heat-insulated floors, close the three channel systems such as thermal veils.
2. Funny, but, answering the previous question, I besides that laid out almost all our "trumps", but also gave a definite answer on the second question. Modern electronic systems develop huge rates, there is a possibility to automate more and more systems and the devices which are responsible for comfort in the house. Yes, whenever possible it is necessary to automate the house. Not to forget about notification system (by means of sms, on an e-mail, video translation). It is worth to remember and about remote management of the house. It yet absolutely «the clever house», ordering products in your refrigerator, but actually the first step on a way to the similar.
3. Our formula consists of the following items:
1) modern heatinsulating materials; 2) дублирование системы генерации тепла;
All this allows to generate effectively heat in the house, and also optimum to distribute and economically to spend energy in a warm contour.
Igor Bogush, head of department of engineering networks of the company "Timber Produkt":
1. Heating systems in modern country cottages should meet three main requirements: efficiency, profitability and uninterrupted operation of work. The optimum decision is the gas copper with possibility of transition to reserve (diesel) fuel. In addition, it is necessary to consider periodic unplanned blackouts which in our region happen quite often, and it is obligatory to provide installation a diesel engine generator — he will not allow to leave a cottage without an electricity and let’s be chilled to the house.
2. At design of systems of heating of cottages whenever possible it is necessary to put "heat-insulated floor" as the most comfortable, safe and economic source of heat. All boiler equipment and systems of heating are mounted with application of systems of automatic equipment and the management, allowing to maintain necessary temperature in each room. Besides, it is necessary to consider and include installation of automatic equipment of management by air exchange of a cottage or ventilation which will allow to support the set humidity in cottages in works of builders.
3. In our opinion, the formula of the optimum house should correspond to a formula of the great Roman architect, the engineer, the theorist of architecture of the second half of the I century BC Mark Vitruvy Pollion: «ADVANTAGE, DURABILITY, BEAUTY».