Every year the main municipal resources everything become more expensive to Russians. The beginning of 2012 when tariffs for the first time for many years remained at level last year’s became the unique exception of this rule. However it was necessary to rejoice not for long: instead of single increase in a rent on January 1 we received though delayed, but double: at first on July 1, and then also on September 1. In total growth of cost of "communal flat" made about 15 %, means, it is necessary to tighten belts even more strongly. Especially frightens 12 %-ny growth of tariffs for a heat supply (6 % in July and 6 % in September) since it is the biggest article of utility costs of Russians. However, consequences of growth of tariffs can appear are not so notable if to learn to save. And today we will tell, how.
We use heating only half a year, but we pay for it most of all. Sometimes its cost is equal to cost of all other utilities together taken, and sometimes even exceeds it. So, inhabitants of some regions of the Wedge situated near Moscow pay for heating 2 – the 3-roomed apartment in the most usual house to 30-40 thousand rubles a year! At all for memories and a situation to Primorsky Krai where people in large quantities refused service of a central heating and passed to alternative sources of heat because of unreasonably high prices on него1. However, the similar conflicts arise and in other regions of the country. One of examples – Kotelnich Kirovskoy области2 where, according to citizens, the sum of accounts for heating of city apartments reaches 6-8 thousand rubles in месяц3!
In similar cases the economy of heat becomes an urgent need. But what ways of economy are available to the city dweller? First of all is a collective economy.
Unfortunately, often we cannot find a common language even with the neighbors in a staircase, and in house scales – and podavno. However it is known that in the face of the general misfortune people are able to unite the efforts, and just now it is a high time to forget old offenses. Because solve a problem of economy of heat inhabitants of city apartment houses can only together.
The decision it consists in modernization of heating system of all house which means automation of thermal knot with installation of individual thermal point and an all-house heat meter (if it still is not present). Besides, it is necessary to make balancing of system of heating on struts for what on each of them establish the automatic balancing valve.
The individual thermal point is the device which is dosing out giving of heat in the house from the main network. Dispensing is carried out by the controler (computer) of thermal point which is watching temperature of street air and consumption of heat by inhabitants of the house.
Air temperature is determined by a temperature-sensitive element established directly on the house, instead of certain «an average by hospital» an indicator of a city weather service. Tracking temperature is carried out automatically in real time, 24 hours per day therefore regulation turns out very exact.
Heat consumption by inhabitants also is fixed by automatic equipment of thermal point. For example, if someone disconnected the heating device (radiator), the controler will fix reduction of consumption and will reduce heat giving in the house by the same size.
Automatic balancing valves promote uniform distribution of heat on the house, i.e. once and for all solve a problem when in apartments on near struts to thermal input the retop, and in distant, on the contrary, cold is observed. With valves everywhere it will be identical (but moderately) warmly. It is accompanied by additional economy of heat as already there is no need much to increase its giving, to "heat" distant apartments.
On the average marked measures allow to save 20-35 % of heat. However it is far not a limit.
To reach still bigger economy it is possible if to finish modernization of heating system to logic end, having led it as well in apartments.
Actually, at level of apartments the most exact regulation of consumption of heat which is carried out by directly inhabitants on the heating devices is made. Special devices – automatic radiatorny temperature regulators will help with it.
This small device runs into a pipe on which hot water arrives in a heating radiator. On the size it no more ordinary gate, only has the handle with divisions, rotating which, you establish demanded value of air temperature indoors in limits from +6°C to +26°C. Subsequently the temperature regulator will automatically maintain this temperature while you will not change control.
There is it so. The temperature sensor built in the handle (сильфон) represents tightly soldered cylinder accordion from the elastic metal, filled with thermosensitive substance. At air temperature increase in a room the substance extends, сильфон is extended and pushes a valve rod. And when the temperature of all on 1°C exceeds established by you by means of the handle value, the valve blocks water supply in a radiator. At decrease in temperature сильфон it is compressed and hot water again starts to arrive in the heating device. That is the last works as an electric heater with the built-in thermostat.
However temperature regulators happen different: fast and slow. In the fastest сильфон it is filled with a gas-condensate mix, and they work within only 8 minutes from the moment of temperature increase on 1°C.
Liquid temperature regulators on it need 20-25 minutes, and solid-state (usually сильфоны in them are filled with paraffin) – from 40 minutes to hour and even more. Naturally, the more operation time, the more possibly you will manage to feel discomfort because of a heat before it will occur.
But matter not only in comfort level. The matter is that the heat of people is transferred better, than by cold therefore we notice temperature increase not so quickly as decrease, therefore, and we react to it with some delay in comparison with fall on the same number of degrees. That is on periodic "warming" indoors where the slow temperature regulator is established, anybody will not turn special attention. And here when it becomes cool – inhabitants of the apartment will feel at once and will hasten to a temperature regulator to expose on it more high temperature, having raised thereby and the general level of the heatconsumption. Depending on type of a temperature regulator and specific features of an organism of the specific person received temperature "shift" can make from 2-3°C to 4-6°C. And as it is known, the increase in average air temperature in rooms on 1°C demands increase of heatreturn of heating devices approximately for 5 %. I.e.« slow» temperature regulators can increase your heatconsumption by 10-30 %. You can transfer it to rubles, previously having counted the sum of payments in a year.
It is natural that temperature preferences at all different and consequently the individual contribution of each apartment to the general economy will be various. It would be fair, that it also was reflected in the size of accounts for heating. And here not to do without the pokvartirny accounting of heat.
Unfortunately, in the majority of the Russian houses with vertical stoyakovy distributing of system of heating to carry out it in the traditional way it is almost impossible: it should to cut a separate heat meter in front of each heating device that too difficult and too expensive and it is useless, since there are no so exact household heat meters which could measure heat consumption by only one radiator precisely.
Fortunately, there is more economic and effective alternative. On a surface of each heating device the electronic counter distributor with a temperature-sensitive element, taking temperature of a surface of a radiator fastens. Having established such devices on all heating devices in the house and knowing capacity of these devices, on dynamics of change of temperature of their surface within a month it is easy to calculate a share of each radiator in the general heatconsumption. It is necessary to take the size of an all-house expense fixed by the general heat meter, and to distribute it between all apartments according to their shares.
From electronic counters distributors presence of the person is not necessary for data collection: they are transferred on a radio channel to the floor concentrator, further – on podjezdny, house, and then on the Internet – on the computer in EIRTs where the special program making calculations according to previously brought data on all heating devices is established. This system was certificated in Russia and brought in the Register of measuring instruments. By the way, system cost in terms of one apartment is approximately equal to cost of only one individual heat meter of a traditional design, i.e. in comparison with a "classical" method of the account – the economy is available.
But it is necessary as to heat also staircases, halls, entrances and so forth, divide between residents thus not all all-house consumption, but only 65 % from it. The remained 35 % carry on the general consumption and divide as usual – in proportion to the area of apartments. But even thus some economical residents manage to reduce the heatconsumption by 50-60 %, i.e. more than in 2 times!
As to all-house consumption, temperature regulators together with system of the pokvartirny accounting of heat give additional 10-15 % of economy. Total, together with individual thermal point and automatic balancing valves, we will receive 30-45 %.
Whether there is a game of candles?
30-45 % – are a lot of it or a little? If to make a start from the sums of payments for heat, given in article beginning, it will turn out on the average 12-18 thousand rubles from the apartment for one heating season. And from an average 80-85-apartment house we will receive 1-1,5 million rubles. For 80-room "five-storey building" it is about a half of the necessary sum on modernization, i.e. investments will pay off for 2 years. Other option – to sign the power service contract, then anything it is not necessary to put, it is simple before repayment of expenses for modernization it will be necessary to continue to pay for warmly "as before".
Power service is the mechanism extremely popular abroad which starts to be applied and in Russia. The power service company (ESKO) signs the contract with the customer (owners of housing) according to which she finds money for modernization and leads it, and returns the expenses at the expense of received as a result of economy (in our case – it is warm). I.e. until, while ESKO will not return the spent means, residents of the house simply pay for heating as much, how many paid earlier, without spending any additional money. And after return of means, i.e. with some delay, start to save.
However, we operated with average figures which allow to do only rough estimates. Real experience can be perfect another, and in the "scandalous" cases similar considered us in the beginning, the economy often happens much more bigger.
So, inhabitants of the house No. 7 down the street Maslennikov in Omsk after modernization of system of heating reduced the payments for heat by 75 %! And inhabitants of the house No. 73 down the street Charles Marx in situated near Moscow to the Wedge after installation of thermal point pay for heat practically in 4(!) times less, than residents of just the same house on Mechnikov, 3. And it should be noted, as there, and facades there were warmed and plastic windows are established.
Besides the thermal point can be designed so that hot water for GVS system prepared in it, at the expense of heating of cold water heat from a city heating system. In this case it will be possible to save in addition very considerable means at the expense of refusal of consumption of expensive drinking hot water at a water canal. So inhabitants of the house No. 36 on Mira Avenue in Veliky Novgorod (Veche Condominium), for example, made, having cut down the expenses on water supply more than for 30 %.
To avoid growth of municipal tariffs it is impossible, but it does not mean that situation is hopeless. The modern power effective equipment for systems of heating and water supply of residential buildings allows to reduce so essentially heat consumption that together inhabitants not only I will not feel this growth, but even will cut the expenses on heating. The only thing what it is necessary to remember: nothing occurs by itself therefore towards to energy saving it is necessary to take a step.
Press service "Danfoss"