To write about the problems connected with the beginning of a heating season, became at us already tradition. However usually this subject is shined somehow one-sidedly. As a rule, events of city and regional scale, type of failures get to hot news on heating plants only. Meanwhile, there are they in apartments of town houses, and a considerable part — exactly that day when include heating much more often.
Certainly, each such event in itself hardly is worthy the general public. But whether someone tried to calculate total volume of the claims, which dear Russians annually вчиняют each other following the results of flooding of apartments because of «the broken-through batteries» (terminology national)? It is quite probable that this sum will exceed the annual budget of the small European state. So, time about the problems came to talk, which citizens with enviable stubbornness create from year to year to themselves. Not to be unfounded, we decided to study a situation on a concrete example «from life», and to comment on it asked the deputy director of department of thermal automatic equipment of the company «Danfoss" 1 Anton Belov and lawyer Alina Domkina.
«So it developed that I started apartment renovation only in September therefore to begin it solved from replacement of batteries — Muscovite Evgeny Kuznetsov (we changed a surname of our interlocutor) tells. — Without having the slightest idea of how it becomes, I addressed for the help in REP2 serving our house. There to me advised to talk to the local plumber (we will name him Vasily Petrovitch) who undertook to replace to me two batteries for 14 thousand rubles. It made impression on me favorable, and I agreed».
Alina Domkina:« Having addressed to Vasily Petrovitch in a private order, Evgeny lost the right to free elimination of malfunctions and compensation of a possible damage in case of leak emergence in the batteries established by the plumber. If the RAP, DEZ, management company or any other organization render services in their installation or replacement on an official order, it should be reflected in the price-list. Any works are carried out after the conclusion of the official contract which one copy remains at the customer. The fact of payment proves to be true the cash voucher, and the works fact — the act of their acceptance. Otherwise there is no difference, Vasily Petrovitch established you batteries or you made it, at own risk. If something happens, the fault for consequences of the wrong installation of the equipment will lay down on you, suffered losses you cannot compensate, and here neighbors whom you will fill in — can, and to pay off with them to you it is necessary from the pocket».
Anton Belov: «Heating devices — an integral part of all-house heating system, any works on which should be carried out by the organization having on this right, i.e. the corresponding license or accreditation. At the RAP it is, but Vasily Petrovitch in itself if it performs work not according to the official contract, is the individual, instead of the representative the RAP. And to perform similar works in a private order it has no right. By the way, also because the heating system — a potential source of the increased danger, after all the water temperature, arriving in heating devices, can reach 105°C — it is abrupt boiled water! You will entrust to tear to yourselves tooth to the first comer on the street who will impress you "favourably"? Here approximately the same».
To it it is necessary to add that any works on heating system can be carried out only in strict accordance with project documentation. The matter is that at design of system of heating the capacity of each heating device in the house pays off. Thus it can be various as for the devices established in different rooms of one apartment, and for the devices established in rooms on one strut on different floors. Therefore it is impossible to establish the heating device simply at random: its thermal capacity should be same, as well as at old. If all inhabitants establish such devices what it will want them, there will be a system disbalance and as a result in one rooms will be intolerably hot, and in others — real «колотун» irrespective of the fact which devices there are established.
But where to take documentation? First of all, it without fail should be in the serving organization (the RAP, DEZ, REU, management company and so forth). There to you are obliged to issue the certified plan of yours (yours!) apartments on which heating devices with the indication of all necessary parameters will be designated. It is possible to address also in the design organization. For example, in Moscow similar services render State Unitary Enterprise MNIITEP3 and State Unitary Enterprise Moszhilniiproyekt4 where for addresses of citizens on various questions «the service of one window» functions.
So, let us assume, you received project documentation according to which it is necessary to perform works, and signed the official contract with their performer. What’s next? it is obvious, it is necessary to get heating devices and other necessary materials.
«The plumber told to me that it is necessary to buy, and I went on the construction market — Evgeny Kuznetsov speaks. — Here I also got all necessary, being guided by recommendations of the seller».
Alina Domkina: «It is necessary to approach to a choice of a place of purchase of building materials responsibly, especially if it is a question of the engineering equipment. It is better to go to construction hypermarket or the specialized company, instead of on the market. In this case you precisely will known, to whom to make a complaint if production appears poor-quality».
Anton Belov: «The performer of works should give at least the exact description of the necessary equipment, i.e. specify characteristics and recommended producers. And in general, to charge purchase of materials to the customer — it is nonprofessional. The estimate including both cost of works, and cost of materials should be attached to the contract. If the performer is responsible for result, should buy them independently».
«At a stage of reflections I reflected on the forthcoming repair that would be quite good to provide shutdown of batteries in case of need — Evgeny continues. — For example, in the apartment at my brother who lives in rather new house, on each of them the automatic radiatorny temperature regulator is established. However the plumber dissuaded me to buy them, motivating it with that regulators get littered therefore the battery can not heat at all».
Anton Belov: «It illustrates once again that sad fact that the skill level of specialists of many serving organizations is, how it is fashionable to tell it today, «below a plinth». In particular, plumbers simply do not understand a principle of operation of such rather simple device, as an automatic radiatorny temperature regulator. As a result they simply mislead inhabitants, telling them baizes».
Let’s stop on this question in more detail. The matter is that the device about which there is a speech, regulates air temperature indoors, instead of temperature of the heating device. In a rotary head of a temperature regulator сильфон — tightly soldered cylindrical vessel from elastic metal with a lateral surface in the form of "accordion". Silfon is filled with thermosensitive substance. At air temperature increase in a room above established by you by means of the handle of a temperature regulator of value filling сильфон the substance extends and stretches "accordion" which moves a valve rod, closing its lock and disconnecting the heating device. When the temperature in a room decreases, the substance is compressed and everything occurs upside-down: the heating device turns on. Thus, it starts to work as well all a familiar electric heater with the thermostat, i.e. not smoothly changes the temperature, and can be during the different moments of time either hot, or cold. Without understanding a principle of work of the temperature regulator, some inhabitants, having found out that «the battery cold», start to sound alarm and to call plumbers whom, also without having idea of the device device, immediately declare that «it got littered». And legends are born.
It is necessary to add that automatic radiatorny temperature regulators can be various updating. For example, the temperature regulators of Danfoss adapted for application in the Russian heating systems, are polnoprokhodny (i.e. do not complicate a water channel) and are calculated on working pressure to the 16th bar. They are issued in two options: for one-trumpet systems of heating (namely such in the majority of standard panel houses) and for the two-trumpet. Now, having dealt with temperature regulators, we can return to Evgeny.
«Vasily Petrovitch established batteries quickly enough and as it seemed to me, qualitatively — our interlocutor remembers. — I remained is happy with work and paid off with it».
Anton Belov:« It is available an irresponsibility example. Having finished works on heating system, the expert is obliged to carry out her opressovka, i.e. to check, how the established equipment will lead under pressure. For this purpose in system water is pumped. And even if you change heating devices in the middle of summer when heating does not work also struts empty, the managing organization (in this case the RAP) is obliged to submit according to your demand to a strut cold water. Moreover, her representative (for example, the caretaker or the chief engineer) should check, how work is executed to be present at tests and if they passed successfully and it has no claims to the performer, to make and sign the commissioning act. Who how not the regular plumber the RAP, should know about it and inform the owner of the apartment?! Besides, according to the photo we see that serious violation is allowed: on байпас (crossing point) the spherical crane is established. It can lead to that all strut remains without heat. And performed by the plumber of the organization maintaining the house it differently as wrecking you will not call».
Alina Domkina: «The act of commissioning confirms that the maintaining organization accepted the established equipment on service and further bears responsibility for its accident-free operation along with the performer of works».
«In day when included heating, I was on work, and the wife, having taken away the daughter in a day nursery, went on shops — continues the story our interlocutor. — Having come back home, she felt shock: all apartment was filled in with the hot water whipping from invisible openings by usual consideration along a seam of a pipe with which connected the battery in one of rooms. Certainly, we caused an emergency signal, a strut blocked and water supply in the battery muffled. But all apartment was filled in, the parquet rose (at first we wanted to leave it, but now precisely it is necessary to put a laminate), and many things appeared are spoiled (for example, as a result of hit of water expensive voltage stabilizer for the computer) burned down.
When I came to the RAP somehow to understand in happened, to talk to me wanted nobody. Plumber Vasily Petrovitch who has established to me batteries to alter something refused, having declared that it not his fault and to understand I should with those who sold me the rejected pipes. But in pavilion in the market where I bought them to talk to me too did not want, having sent to "senior" whom I did not find».
Certainly, upon maintaining the organization at anything: Evgeny had the oral arrangement with a certain Vasily Petrovitch — the individual, speaking on behalf the name and formally not having any relation to the RAP. But even being the individual, the plumber should go down before replacement of heating devices in a cellar and block a strut that in principle it is impossible to make if not to take in the RAP keys from a cellar. It turns out that them give according to the first requirement to the first comer. Strange, isn’t that so? In this context a question of non-participation the RAP to the happened appears absolutely in other light.
As to all the rest, it is possible to tell that Evgeny was largely lucky, it is as though paradoxical sounded. First, because he lives on the first floor. Otherwise, having flooded apartments on several floors under itself, it would be compelled to pay to their owners compensation which total size quite could reach 1-2 million rubles. And to Evgeny as we remember to collect this money there is nobody. Secondly, it yet did not start to do repair – and consequently itself incurred the minimum losses.
Anton Belov: «This great happiness that at the moment of failure was nobody near a pipe full of holes. And in general, all happened — a sad result of a chain of the wrong actions which was predictable. It would seem, simply it was not lucky and in everything the unfortunate piece of a pipe is guilty. However if everything was made correctly and according to existing rules about which we in detail spoke today, anything terrible would not occur: at worst a strut immediately blocked during an opressovka, and is most true — qualitative pipes» would be simply used.
By the way, the question of a choice of pipes and the other equipment deserves separate attention, so far as about it speech came. First of all it is necessary to tell that all details (the heating device, pipes, connecting elements (fitting), spherical cranes, radiatorny temperature regulators and so forth) should correspond according to the characteristics to service conditions as a part of heating system of a big apartment house. In practice it means that they should be calculated on working pressure NOT LESS the 10th bar (as, for example, Danfoss temperature regulators) and temperature NOT LESS 90°С. Pipes — a subject separate. Today at forums about repair it is possible to find one million various recommendations about what it is necessary to connect heating devices. However it is best of all to trust in this question in the expert.
Anton Belov: «Traditionally in heating systems steel pipes are used, and it is absolutely quite good option. And it is a question of ordinary "black" pipes:« the otsinkovka» which is applied in systems of hot and cold water supply where unprepared water with the big content of oxygen is used, in this case is not necessary. Only thing "but": it is necessary to choose pipes of a domestic production and it is desirable seamless, instead of welded, i.e. without a longitudinal seam as it turned out at Evgeny. From other options use of polipropilenovy pipes is allowed. It is meaningful, if the heating device is transferred on considerable distance from a strut. However it is necessary to remember that, according to existing standards, polipropilenovy pipes should be hidden to the canal (i.e. a casing) as it is a plastic material and it it is rather easy to damage. For example, cases when the polipropilenovy pipe was перегрызена a house dog are known. Besides, such pipes it is necessary to fix in a special way since they have property a little to change length because of big factor of temperature expansion.
Copper getting recently the increasing popularity — a fine choice for the private house with independent system of heating, but not the best — for the Russian cities. The matter is that water at us, as a rule, dirty, i.e. contains a lot of sand and scales. These inclusions affect copper like an emery paper: they constantly peel a pipe from within, istonchy its walls and without allowing to be formed on them to a patina — the oksidno-carbonate film which is carrying out protective function. Therefore expensive copper pipe in the city apartment can already leak years through five.
At last, in heating system in general it is forbidden to apply metalplastic pipes, since they insufficiently well hold pressure and temperature. They are suitable for intra room distributing of a water supply system, and here for heating — unequivocally is not present».
«Batteries now it is necessary переподключить anew, and absolutely precisely I will not address any more neither with it, nor with any other problem in the RAP» — Evgeny Kuznetsov sums up.
He learned on a personal experience. And you?