The summer passes in Russia quickly and imperceptibly. Three months it is possible to rejoice to hot weather, and other nine – only to dream of it. In the long autumn evenings and at the winter nights the system of a central heating rescues from colds in apartments. And in private houses even more often there are fireplaces – not only heat sources, but also cosiness symbols.
To equip in the house qualitative and, the main thing, a safe fireplace under force only to professionals. Any book or the step-by-step instruction article on the Internet will not turn you into the skilled bricklayer.
First of all at design of a fireplace it is necessary to pay special attention to a conclusion of products of burning – correctly to design and establish a flue.
If to commit a serious mistake at this stage, the risk of is great that products of burning will provoke a fire. Small miscalculations in design and installation of a flue can "only" force to work very hard a copper, having reduced its efficiency from 90 % to 45 %. In addition there will be a probability of hit of carbon monoxide in a room and strong damage of walls in places of pass of pipes.
Before the beginning of construction of a fireplace it is necessary to define, the flue will be made of what material. This question deserves detailed consideration.
Brick, steel or ceramics? Pluses and minuses
In city and rural construction until recently brick flues more often met. The universal construction material allowed to vary thickness of walls of a flue and number of channels of a conclusion of products of burning, and also to do necessary ledges and thickenings in places of passing of a pipe.
If to observe all technologies of installation, the brick flue will serve long and regularly. But it has essential shortcomings: the big weight of a design demands base construction; the rectangular or square section is not optimum for draft; operation of a brick flue during winter time provokes formation of condensate which destroys a design and considerably reduces term of its service.
At a choice of a brick flue pay attention to the most widespread mistakes in its arrangement:
- poor-quality or improper material (the wall, peregorodochny or poorly burned brick);
- laying type «on an edge» in the main design and a "gear" laying on its inclined sites;
- incorrectly prepared solution;
- seams in thickness more than 5 mm;
- the inaccurate is sharp a brick; dual vertical seams and existence of emptiness in them;
- installation of a brick pipe closely to designs from combustible materials.
The brick flue demands a permanent care and regular cleanings. Long since brick pipes by all means plastered and painted in white color – on a light surface easier to notice a soot and cracks.
Not to everyone under force special care of a brick flue therefore in new houses even more often it is possible to see flues from stainless steel.
Steel flues it is easier brick. The additional base is not necessary to them, they are durable and simple in installation, besides suit the majority of furnaces and coppers, including can be built in already ready system of heating.
Round section of metal pipes optimum for draft and a conclusion of products of burning. And soot settles on metal walls, than on the brick less often.
Essential lack of a flue from metal is that at contact to moisture there is a risk of corrosion of metal. For this reason not all brands of stainless steel are applicable in flues. Some producers try to save and choose cheaper metal that leads to premature destruction of a flue, and sometimes and to its collapse.
And at last, one more type of modern flues – ceramic pipes. Inside – a pipe from shamotny weight, then the insulation layer from stone cotton wool, and outside – light concrete or mirror stainless steel.
Minus of a ceramic pipe – not so successful combination of metal to ceramics in connection with different factors of thermal expansion of these materials. However, despite this shortcoming, ceramic flues nevertheless are popular. They quickly and easily gather, are steady against condensate influence, to high temperatures and, according to producers, will serve till 100 years.
In the separate line подчеркнём: irrespective of the fact which you will choose a material for a flue, it is better to refuse independent installation at once. As it was already mentioned earlier, works of similar complexity qualitatively execute professionals can only.
What should be a flue
The correct flue has good draft, system of complete and free removal of products of burning, differs fast warming up of walls and overcoming of a temperature threshold of a kondensatoobrazovaniye. It corresponds to pozharobezopasnost standards, and also is durable, strong and convenient at installation.
Requirements to modern flues are stated in the joint venture 7.13130.2009 «Heating, ventilation and conditioning».
The brochure «Rule of production of trubo-oven works», created by the All-Russia voluntary fire society (VDPO) in 2006 will be a useful grant for installation also.
These documents answer questions of how it is correct and safe to mount a flue at home that it did not become an ignition source. Both documents are in free online access – study and supervise work of assemblers.
Different flues it is warmed differently
Products of burning contain various substances including sulfuric connections which enter reaction with oxygen and form weak solution of sulfuric acid. It also is that condensate which settles on internal walls of a flue, destroys a design and becomes frequent the ignition reason. That the amount of condensate did not exceed the established safe norms, it is necessary to carry out works on system warming competently.
To warm a brick flue rather difficult therefore it, as a rule, do not establish closely to external walls of a building. The external part of a pipe is revetted with an additional number of a brick or other decorative material. Certainly, it not absolutely warming, but nevertheless a flue becomes steadier and strong.
Brick pipes with thickness of a wall in a half of a brick are considered warmed if they are established in a building, and over a roof only small part of a flue towers. External brick pipes are warmed, if the thickness of their walls makes not less than 65 cm (2,5 bricks). On attics brick pipes plaster warm solutions or revet with basalt cotton wool.
Two-layer steel flues are warmed initially. The metal design has space between an external and internal pipe which is filled with a heatisolating layer from stone cotton wool in thickness of 30-50 mm. External sites of a flue are isolated by a material in thickness to 100 mm. Isolation not only provides reliable protection against formation of condensate, but also solves a question of fire safety of internal sites of the smoke channel.
For warming of a flue it is necessary to use the qualitative and reliable material steady against ignition and ecologically safe. So, the Danish company ROCKWOOL lets out the wide range of heatinsulating materials from stone cotton wool. Rigid heatinsulating plates of FIRE BATTS are suitable for isolation of flat surfaces of furnaces, fireplaces and the high-temperature equipment. The material maintains temperature to 750°С and is applied to creation of fire-prevention boards and arrangement of prikaminny and oven space.
Also for warming of a flue it is possible to take WIRED MAT – proshivny a mat with working temperature to 750°С in a facing from the galvanized grid. Past year ROCKWOOL successfully started in Russia production of cut segments for isolation of steel modular flues. These segments are used by the largest domestic producers of flues and can be acquired as a part of finished articles.
As it is correct to look after a flue
At operation of flues there can be various problems.
At misuse of the heating device and deterioration of heatisolating properties of a flue on internal walls of a pipe the soot settles, capable to destroy a design and to become the reason of emergence of a fire. It is one of the most widespread problems in brick flues, to avoid which it is possible preventive measures and regular cleaning of pipes.
Bad draft in a flue usually appears because of mistakes in design, the wrong installation of pipes and a poor-quality insulating material. To correct it, it is necessary to change a design of a flue and to increase a layer of an isolating material on the pipes located on an attic and over a roof.
The flue can burn through, if for its construction poor-quality materials were used or service regulations of the heating device were broken.
As the statistics shows, the majority of fires in private houses occur in knot of crossing by a flue of overlapping and are a consequence of the wrong arrangement of a driving and flue warming.
However to avoid troubles it is possible if to entrust design and flue installation to professionals. Remember that at independent installation and design warming responsibility for possible consequences is born personally by you.
It is not less important to carry out regularly prevention of furnaces and fireplaces, then fire in the house will be only heat and pleasure source.