According to Alexander Zhukov, the first deputy chairman of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, more than 70 % of the Russian medical institutions of the country are in great need under repair and переоснащении1. At the same time, in Russia major maintenance is necessary to every fifth comprehensive school. In a word, a situation with a condition of social objects on all country, to put it mildly, the difficult. The peeled facades, the cracked windows, the peeled corridors and rooms – all this are simple for seeing not only in Russian "remote place", but also in the large cities.
But modest appearance – not the biggest trouble of the Russian social infrastructure. We already almost got used to reportings that in winter months school students in many cities of the country are compelled to be engaged in outer clothing, and patients of hospitals in addition to the diseases get pneumonia and bronchitis because of drafts and cold in chambers. Prodigal relation to received heat is the most painful point for educational and medical institutions.
And even the means allocated on federal and regional programs, sometimes do not help to solve this problem. Having incorrectly placed priorities, them less useful actions, for example, can spend for more evident, but painting of a facade or repair of internal rooms. Meanwhile, in the different ends of the country sufficient experience of modernization of the social objects, precisely directed on improvement of a microclimate and decrease in expenses for a heat supply is already stored.
Between cold and heat
Hardly on the most part of the territory of Russia snow drops out and colds as literally from each region surprisingly similar messages start to arrive are established. Past winter the signal of SOS sounded from patients of the Baikal hospital: «Cold in all offices, including maternity and children’s, and also in policlinic!» – they wrote in the collective letter. Pregnant patients of versatile hospital of Nizhnekamsk complained of cold chambers and drafts from windows also. And pupils of the Chita school No. 30 studied this winter in the chilled offices at +8-13°C though the heat-carrier temperature in system of heating made +83°С.
More often the problem reason – in the old cracked wooden windows with an unary glazing. They at the very least consulted with the task when energy resources cost not much, but now became real «a black hole» for heat. From drafts and cold no "national" measures like sticking up of cracks by an adhesive tape or newspapers help. The problem is aggravated by that fact that schools, hospitals and kindergartens in Soviet period were designed with the big areas of a glazing so big windows everywhere are established. On norms of natural lighting 0,5 sq.m of the area should fall on one pupil svetoprozrachny конструкций2. For hospitals this indicator is slightly less, but all the same windows make a considerable share фасада3.
What to do in this situation, it is clear to any not to the person expert in construction technologies, – it is necessary to change windows. Only the formalistic approach to replacement of wooden frames by modern window designs with double-glazed windows not always yields positive results.
«It is necessary to take into consideration that the company choice for manufacturing and installation of new plastic windows occurs on a competitive basis. If conditions of the tender were formulated carelessly, in them many technical subtleties of a choice of window designs taking into account the Russian climate can not be taken into consideration. So can win the cheapest, but the most qualitative offer is far not, – Anton Bogdanov, the marketing director of the PROPLEX company, the first Russian developer and the largest producer of window PVC systems on the Austrian technologies speaks. – The obligatory requirement for svetoprozrachny designs is compliance to local construction norms on power efficiency. It is possible to provide them, only using windows with the increased energy saving properties – for example, on the basis of five-chamber systems with assembly width not less than 70 mm (such as PROPLEX-Premium), with the two-chamber double-glazed window filled with argon».
Installation of similar energy saving windows is considered the fastest and effective way of improvement of a microclimate in medical and educational institutions. So, Farit Hanifov, the first deputy minister of construction, architecture and housing and communal services of Tatarstan, making comments on replacement at 44 schools of the republic of old wooden frames on plastic windows, emphasized that the accent becomes on use of energy saving window designs as these actions increase power efficiency of buildings for 20-30 %.
Additional plus is that replacement of windows can be spent actually at any time years – as soon as funds will be allocated for it.
«In December, 2012 in the 2nd children’s city hospital of Rostov-on-Don windows from PROPLEX PVC PROFILE were established, – Vladimir Domanov, the executive director of the window company JSC Rost-Ok tells. – Contrast meanwhile that was, and that became, all noticed without an exception patients and the staff of hospital».
It is logical that local authorities, hardly in the budget appear spare cash, begin works with windows, as from the designs least protected from cold. So, in Ufa in the autumn of 2012 at school No. 108 262 old wooden frames were replaced with plastic windows on the basis of the PROPLEX profile. Positive changes felt at once both pupils, and teachers.
«All works on installation of windows are complete in only 10 days! Earlier in rooms it was cool and uncomfortable, now the temperature considerably raised, – Tatyana Galyapo, the principal No. 108 makes comments. – With new windows the building took absolutely other form – it became more esthetic».
One of the most important conditions of reduction of heatlosses of any building is a comprehensive approach. That is should be warmed not only windows, but also facades and roofs. Unfortunately, on it money not always suffices. But if financing is allocated, there is a question of the construction technologies which are most suitable for these tasks.
«The choice of system of a thermal insulation of facades has special value for medical and educational institutions. It is known that if walls of rooms of everything on two degrees are colder some air, there is a feeling of a draft that can lead to catarrhal diseases. Besides, on cold walls of rooms there can be a condensate and subsequently be formed a mold that is absolutely inadmissible, – Xenia Klinovskaya, a product manager on systems of a thermal insulation of the CAPAROL company speaks. – Modern plaster heatinsulating systems, such as CAPATECT (Caparol), allow to solve all these problems and to provide a favorable microclimate at small costs of heating.
Besides, monotonous schools and the kindergartens erected on standard projects, by means of such plaster systems it is possible to paint in bright and saturated colors. This technology equally well is suitable both for reconstructed, and for again erected buildings. For example, the bright multi-colored facades which are well keeping heat, received kindergarten "Sun" in the Moscow area the Southern Chertanovo and the kindergarten constructed on the individual project in Yekaterinburg in the area "Academic". High quality of components and competent installation guarantee durability of external furnish. Having once allocated funds for repair, local authorities can close this question for many decades forward».
There is such equipment
Warming of a roof and facades, replacement of windows – all this obvious measures which lead to an immediate positive effect. But rather complex reconstruction of the social objects, allowing to improve a microclimate and thus to lower charges of the budgetary establishments, should go much further, mentioning and shabby engineering systems of buildings.
Modernization of city clinical hospital (GKB) of No. of 4 g of Moscow (former Pavlovsk), carried out for 2000-2001 with participation financing of the Danish power agency became one of the first such projects in Russia.
«The modernization which prepared and has been carried out with the assistance of specialists of the Danfoss company, concerned systems of heating, hot water supply and hospital ventilation, – Alexander Manyuk, the director general production внедренческой tells EKOTER firms, the main performer of works. – Settlement thermal loading of all complex of buildings totally made 7,4 Gcal/hour. According to the project, complex modernization of TsTP of the hospital was carried out, allowed to normalize working hours of engineering systems and at the same time to reduce thermal loading approximately in 1,5 times. In particular, all kozhukhotrubny water heaters are replaced with modern lamellar heat exchangers with higher efficiency, and the heating system is transferred to automatic control depending on change of weather conditions. Thus the amendments considering requirements for the minimum temperature for various types of rooms in medical institutions are made to algorithm of operation of controlers.
Also automatic control of water temperature was realized in GVS system. New broad tanks are established and complete replacement of the pump equipment by more modern, with frequency pressure regulation depending on intensity of water analysis is made. On inputs of 30 cases of hospital automatic regulators of pressure difference, and in two buildings having independent connection to a heating system, – the automated individual thermal points (AITP) are established. 19 installations of forced ventilation equipped with mixing pumps and automatic equipment that allowed not only to optimize their heatconsumption, but also considerably to increase reliability of work in a cold season».
After the carried-out works total heatconsumption of GKB No. 4 decreased more than for 35 %, a water consumption – approximately for 30 %. Besides, at the expense of use of frequency Danfoss converters on circulating pumps of system of heating electricity consumption decreased for 10 %. Investments into the project in volume about 350 thousand dollars paid off all for 4 years.
When dependence of social objects on the heatsupplying organizations monopolists disturbs normal work of establishment, there is a possibility to address to alternative methods of a heat supply. For example, to establish thermal pumps which through system of heat exchangers collect low-potential heat of the earth and ground waters and use it for building heating.
For example, such equipment is introduced in Tomsk at kindergarten No. 83 construction "Spot of sunlight". According to Andrey Osipov, the specialist of the Danfoss company, in perimeter of a building 24 wells by depth to 100 meters that allowed to use low-temperature heat of the earth which all the year round is available on such depth were drilled. So needs of a building for heat and hot water for 100 % are provided at the expense of use of geothermal thermal pumps.
Approach to cold on all fronts
In Russia fight against cold has basic value as from time to time «Russian winters» give unpleasant surprises in the form of the abnormal frosts leading to overloads of heatgenerating stations and their failures.
But, as practice shows, sometimes for prevention of collapse there are no 20-30 % of thermal capacity – those which could be saved, for example, having established energy saving windows or thermal automatic equipment.
With coming into effect of the Federal law No. 261-FZ from November 23, 2009 about power audit of buildings (including social sphere) "approach" to cold began to grow.
For the first time for the last 20-30 years many hospitals, policlinics and schools had funds for reconstruction. So, in 2012 from the federal budget for major maintenance of the Russian schools it was allocated 15 billion rubles. But it is still important to send this cash flow to the necessary course that means were spent, first of all, on measures for energy saving and improvement of quality of a microclimate and only in the second turn – on little significant face liftings. And then, undoubtedly, there will come day when the cold at schools and hospitals will cease to be the habitual phenomenon.