Time spent at a fireplace, flows slowly and slowly. Looking at the sparks of fire which are running races, and listening to almost inaudible sounds of crackling coals, we would like to philosophize and think of something pleasant.
Probably, and did at all times: and the primitive people who were tired in a day to chase mammoths, gathering in the evening near a circle of stones with fire in the middle; and the ancient Romans who have thought up the first design of the center with beams and a pipe; and the romantic knights frying on a chimney spit of a bull.
From the primitive center to modern fireplaces
As soon as fireplaces started to decorate, and there was it in Romance time, and their value was replaced with especially heating also with the decorative. During an era of late Gothic and the early Renaissance they at all turned only into attribute of wealth and luxury.
In Russia fireplaces, as well as many other European delicacy, became fashionable at Peter the Great and at once became an indicator of the status of the host: in ancient mansions they took a worthy place near Russian furnaces.
Built in, wall, island?
At all richness of a choice fireplaces can be divided into three big groups. The built-in fireplace is constructed in the course of a laying of walls of the house. Its all functional is built also in a wall. Big plus – it takes least places from all possible options.
But if the house is already ready, and the fireplace very much would be desirable to establish, eat two more look. Wall as it is easy to guess, usually have at a wall. It is open on the one hand, and its main part hides behind the falshsteny. He can be stood in the corner and to "warm" thus some rooms, but this process is very difficult. If put a wall fireplace in the middle of a wall, do not forget to leave on each side not less than 1 m.
It is possible to put an island fireplace in the middle of a room if it is not stirred anybody. It, of course, occupies the areas most of all, but also looks at desire very effectively: on a small eminence, with the convector lowered from a ceiling on springs or chains directly over a fire chamber.
From what, from what, from what …
At fireplace construction first of all it is necessary to choose necessary materials. Experts advise to prefer a natural stone if initially you hesitated between it and a brick. But the combination is possible also.
It is possible to build and a graceful concrete fireplace, but it will make to make only the qualified professional. The fireplace from concrete demands a difficult timbering, a ceramic tile and sometimes shod accessories.
The copper, steel or tin sheets connected by welding or fastened by rivets, will be useful for construction of metal fireplaces.
If you chose, what fireplace is necessary to you, let’s consider, of what it consists and as works.
The fireplace has the person
The person of a fireplace – a portal. As it will look, depends on an interior of the apartment and from the imagination of her owner. The design of modern portals has no borders: in it it is possible to see and the ancient center from rough stones, and an up-to-date source of heat in hi-tech style.
Probably, the portal is the unique general element which is present and at the real fireplaces, and at фальшкаминов. Fireplace imitation (or фальшкамин) is chosen by those who is not ready to a serious waste of time and money and expects to receive the simplest option of "home".
From the real fireplace it has enough differences. That is gipsokartonny designs which can be placed to any apartment, even in the one-room. And to make it it is very simple: to sheathe a framework sheets from gypsum cardboard, to close up seams and задекорировать outside. The main difference фальшкамина from the real fireplace – lack of a flue.
Frame of a fireplace – a flue
And here the flue, whatever simple it seemed at first sight, by consideration from within it appears the most difficult technical construction demanding exact calculations. To design it it is correct, it is necessary to define optimum dimensions of an aperture of a fire chamber and depth of a portal, to calculate height and width of a mouth of an extract, height and section of a pipe, to pick up a cap for a pipe and not to forget to consider feature of a landscape and the district.
In the course of design of oven heating in the house it is necessary to remember that for a fireplace the separate flue is necessary, and there will be it more than a flue from the furnace.
With a choice of the sizes it is necessary to be extremely attentive: too long flue creates additional air draft because of which firewood can burn through very quickly, and in a short flue of draft will not suffice.
Optimum form of section for a metal flue – round, and for a flue from a brick – square. The rectangular section is admissible, but it is undesirable – the mass of a smoke moving on the center, will be late near walls. Ogolovok pipes need to be "closed" the deflector and a grid-iskrogasitelem.
Hot "heart" of a fireplace
Besides frame of a fireplace – a flue – at it is and «heart – a fire chamber. The fire chamber is a place for burning of firewood. In classical fireplaces it is accepted to do a fire chamber wide and superficial, certainly, of a fire-resistant material. The stone, a brick or metal will approach. Walls of an open fire chamber we spread from a fire-resistant brick, revetting with brass sheets for creation of a reflecting surface and, as a result, heatreturn increase. We do not forget about a thermal insulation, but about it we will talk later and in more detail.
That counter air flows did not cause room smoke, in the top part of a fire chamber it is useful to put the gas threshold, sometimes called "tooth". Besides, it increases draft when kindling and reduces soot emission. When for any reasons "tooth" do not put, a flue to a fire chamber connect the inclined channel.
The opened or closed fire chamber?
One of the major questions at a fireplace choice: «The opened or closed fire chamber?». That fireplace, which image rises in eyes at the majority of people when pronouncing this word, is called as a fireplace with an open fire chamber. Fire in a fire chamber is not separated from a room that can be both plus, and a minus. Plus that it is esthetically beautiful, and minuses – the increased risk of ignition and smaller efficiency.
In a fireplace with the closed fire chamber as it is simple to guess, one or all walls of the chamber are replaced with the glazed doors. Such fireplaces have higher efficiency and excellent fire-prevention safety, but at the same time its glass part it is necessary to clean from time to time.
Happens and the mixed option when fireplace doors with the closed fire chamber are equipped with the sliding mechanism hiding them under facing and turning thus a fire chamber into the open.
Wall or island, concrete or metal, opened or closed – the fireplace of any kind demands special attention to fire safety. Therefore from the very first stages of construction it is necessary to reflect on a choice of heatinsulating materials seriously.
Metal two-layer flues – the simplest design which has been already initially filled with the heatisolating layer from stone cotton wool in thickness of 30-50 mm. The brick flue is warmed so: an external part of a pipe revet with a decorative material or one more layer of a brick, on attics – apply warm solutions or stone cotton wool. The mat of WIRED MAT developed by the Danish company ROCKWOOL perfectly will be suitable for warming of steel modular flues proshivny. It has a unilateral covering the galvanized wire and maintains heating to 750°С.
If the fireplace is established in the wooden house, the thermal insulation of a fire chamber should be begun with acceptance of the raised measures for decrease in risk of fire danger. At first we establish an otsechka from two слоёв a gas concrete, and already from above we fix rigid heatinsulating plates. The combination of these two products guarantees absolute protection of a fireplace as from adverse external, and internal influences.
Now the market of insulating materials for flat surfaces of fireplaces offers different types of plates, but ROCKWOOL FIRE BATTS from stone cotton wool have one of the highest indicators of efficiency. The thickness of these plates of only 50 mm, but admissible temperature of application reaches 750°С. Besides FIRE BATTS have a covering from an aluminum foil that is powerful protection against fire.
Complex thermal insulation of all parts of a fireplace – pledge of long and safe operation of this heating device. The economy on qualitative materials in this case is interfaced to too big risk for life and safety of property. The main thing ruled constructions and warming – do not trust them to nonprofessionals! Then the fireplace will have pleasant your life, pacified and slow.
ROCKWOOL Russia company press service