Shortage of places in preschool institutions became, perhaps, to one of the most actual social problems of modern Russia. With it are anxious today not only parents of kids, but also local governments, administrations of regions, the Government of the Russian Federation. Birth rate growth, aspiration of women to return to labor activity after a child care leave, need to impart to the kid skills of socialization — each of these circumstances promotes increase of a demand of kindergartens.
According to Deputy Prime Minister Olga Golodets, every year the number of children for which the place in kindergarten is necessary grows in our country. So, in 2002 in Russia 6,7 million children at the age from 3 till 7 years, in the 2012th — 7,6 million were registered, and by their 2015 there will be already 8,4 million. «And it not a forecast, and actual data as these children already were born — Olga Golodets specifies. — In turn in kindergarten there are about two million children».
On the other hand, the number of preschool educational institutions was cut by half in comparison with 1990 (see table 1).
Table 1. Preschool educational institutions (data of the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics as of the end of 2012) Godychislo of preschool educational institutions – everything, one thousand in volume a chislechislennost of children in preschool educational institutions – everything, one thousand человекв volume a chislechislennost of children falling on 100 places in preschool educational institutions, all – человекв volume числев the cities and settlements city types rural местностив the cities and settlements city types rural местностив the cities and settlements city types rural местности193227,511,316,212000,70,5………194029,914,915,013000,90,4………195030,217,412,812000,90,3………196047,629,018,63037,72446,7591,0113116102198074,543,231,38149,16445,71703,410911397199087,947,340,69009,56860,52149,010811394199568,637,131,55583,64352,51231,1838968200051,328,622,74263,03408,5854,5818862200546,526,420,14530,43611,0919,49510275200646,226,419,84713,23752,8960,49910679200745,726,619,14906,33905,61000,710511284200845,626,818,85105,44067,51037,910511186200945,326,818,55228,24158,11070,210611288201045,126,718,45388,04280,61107,310711390201144,926,918,05661,14502,41158,810611191На the beginning of 2012 of 2247,9 thousand children needed the device in preschool educational institutions.
The most active mothers of children of preschool age – two collected a year more meetings back, the appeal «Was a keynote of performances and which propaganda posters return to children kindergartens!» It was a question of eviction from the former buildings of preschool institutions of the every possible municipal services which have occupied them in 1990th, and also about moving of families to which some former kindergartens gave under housing (quite often it doctors and teachers) received. Nevertheless, if though a little to understand a situation, it will appear that eviction of the public and municipal services from yesterday’s kindergartens will not solve a problem.
«The vast majority of the preschool institutions constructed till 1990 do not correspond to modern construction standards and provisions of the law «About energy saving», and therefore demand serious capital investments in reconstruction — the director of JSC Teploset Sergey Ponomarev (Biisk of Altai Krai) considers. — At least, which solves today this problem in operating preschool institutions — installation of plastic windows with a threefold glazing, devices of the account, means of heatautomatic equipment, in certain cases — warming of facades. Return of old buildings of kindergartens which are occupied today with civil services and housing, will demand reconstruction both in construction, and in a power part: existence of only plastic windows and metalplastic struts of heating will not solve a problem. From the economic point of view to construct new buildings much cheaper, having provided them with the modern energy saving equipment».
«Replacement of worn-out pipes in operating establishments of the social sphere, installation of plastic windows and other similar actions are certainly important, but do not play a priority role at the solution of problems of creation of a comfortable microclimate and heatsavings — Anton Belov, the deputy director of thermal department of the Danfoss company in Russia, leading global manufacturer of the energy saving equipment agrees. — Without complex automation and use of the modern power effective engineering equipment of these questions not to solve. Besides, experience shows: what expensive these decisions would not seem at first sight, they pay off on the average for 2-3 years».
Need of creation of comfortable conditions for children is today one more problem of preschool institutions. The unbalanced microclimate in premises of kindergartens becomes one of the main reasons for growth of incidence of kids. «When received a place in kindergarten — the pleasure was not a limit. But very quickly it was replaced by disappointment: the son passed in kindergarten only a week — and ached — Anna Kudryavtsev, 4-year-old Maxim’s mother from Biisk (Altai Krai) tells. — It appeared, anything surprising in it is not present, and business at all in adaptation of the child. One tutor forces children to put on more warmly, does not air a room, believing that thus it rescues them from cold, and another, on the contrary, gets the excited children from walk though window leaves in group are not closed yet».
As it is possible to see from an example, quite often comfortable level of temperature is indoors estimated by the tutor or the teacher proceeding from own feelings and opinion on what should be the optimum microclimate for the child. As workers of kindergartens, as a rule, should regulate independently temperature in premises of kindergarten (mainly, opening and closing window leaves) as automation of this process by out-of-date projects is not provided. In particular, acquaintance to the Federal databank of design of objects of capital construction and most economically effective projects of repeated application on a site of the Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation (for example, Moscow, the Tomsk region and Altai Krai) depresses — hardly it is possible to call the projects of kindergartens presented here fully heatsaving up. At the best documentation provides use of water heat-insulated floors and installation of plastic windows.
Meanwhile, today there are the successful realized projects proving that modern decisions for systems of heating and water supply are capable to give answers at once on all existing questions. As Anton Belov («Данфосс») notes, in overwhelming majority of cases the solution of problems of creation of a comfortable microclimate and energy saving is reached thanks to the automated individual thermal points (AITP) with weather compensation. One of features of this decision is that automatic equipment allows to set various working hours of heating system. For example, it is possible to program decrease in air temperature in rooms at night and the days off when children in a garden are not present. And in the rest of the time — to maintain temperature at level demanded by sanitary standards. Thus problems of maintenance of a healthy microclimate and economy of heat are at the same time solved.
The essential role in creation of comfortable conditions in premises of kindergartens is played by also automatic radiatorny temperature regulators established on heating devices. Experts recommend to apply temperature regulators to child care facilities with the gas-filled sensor, as the most sensitive to air temperature drops.
There are also even more progressive decisions. For example, in Tomsk the power effective kindergarten of the category "And" where for providing in groups of a comfortable microclimate the central heating is not used at all successfully functions. The basis of system of a heat supply of kindergarten is made by the thermal pumps Danfoss allowing on each spent kilowatt of the electric power feeding them to receive from 4 to 6 kW of thermal energy. In other words, from 75 to 84 percent of thermal energy it appears free if to compare system of heating of new kindergarten to the classical scheme of a heat supply. It is interesting that similar decisions in Tomsk pay back themselves at a construction stage as connection to a city heating system is more expensive completely mounted "turnkey" system on the basis of the thermal pump. Municipal bodies plan to duplicate the received experience for the new social objects erected in the city.
The kindergarten No. 347 example in Perm is not less interesting: here the power service company on own account established the energy saving equipment of the Danish concern to return the spent means at the expense of economy on consumption of fuel and energy resources. And the next year it made 54 % from the sum of expenses for kindergarten modernization.
It is remarkable that both projects — both in Tomsk, and in Perm — allow not only to speak about considerable economy of resources and financial means on their payment, high payback of investments, but also about formation of comfortable climate in premises of kindergartens. Heads of establishments note that pupils are ill less, and the problem with temperature regulation in rooms at them did not become at all.
Solving a question of shortage of preschool institutions, it is impossible to forget and about accompanying tasks — creation of a comfortable microclimate for kids and energy saving. As practice shows, they not only do not contradict each other, but are links of one indissoluble chain: to save heat it is possible without damage to health, first of all — the smallest citizens of our country.