For the last decade in housing and communal services of Russia there was a set of changes. One of the innovations, a great impact both on the market of utilities, and on the equipment market for engineering systems, the Federal law No. 261-FZ became made. It orders obligatory installation of devices of the individual accounting of all types of municipal resources, including to thermal energy, in new construction and reconstruction, since January 1, 2012. This provision of the law actually was an incitement to creation of the large-scale market of the individual accounting of heat. So, since 2011 in the majority of regions of Russia projects of again under construction buildings join these or those types of devices and systems of the individual accounting of heat. By the present moment of one hundred such buildings are already constructed and put in operation.
How to consider heat
According to the Set of rules of the joint venture 60.13330.2012 «Heating, ventilation and conditioning», in buildings with horizontal pokvartirny distributing of system of heating are applied to the organization of the individual account room counters of heat. On input to the apartment the counter with the mechanical or ultrasonic flowmeter, intended for direct measurement of an expense of heat is established.
But the majority of houses in Russia continues to be under construction with traditional vertical distributing of system of heating. In similar systems for the pokvartirny accounting of the joint venture 60.13330.2012 orders installation «radiatorny distributors and other similar devices».
Distributors measure by Radiatornye not an expense and a difference of temperatures of the heat-carrier, and a so-called temperature pressure, i.e. a difference of temperatures between a characteristic point of a surface of the heating device and air indoors. On an exit at the distributor the dimensionless size proportional to the actual heatreturn of the heating device turns out. For exact calculation of absolute size of consumption it is necessary to know indications of an all-house heat meter and the indication of distributors on as it is possible for the most part of rooms of an apartment house (at least 50 %).
In the Russian market it is presented some types of radiatorny distributors of foreign production, and also the first development of domestic producers. However thus there was a tendency dangerous to consumers connected with attempts of unreasonable use of distributors as «measuring instruments of thermal energy».
«Some producers of the equipment, trying to get competitive advantages in the market, declare existence for the devices of the "calibration" radiatorny factors, giving the chance to translate the distributor indication in physical units of warmth for each concrete type of heating devices. Unfortunately, tests by definition of such factors are carried out in the incomplete volume which is not considering real conditions of a design of systems of heating, fluctuation of parameters of the heat-carrier in heating devices, air temperature fluctuations indoors during the heating period. At correct carrying out tests it would become obvious that such calibration factor simply does not exist, and the error of transfer can reach 40 %. The consumers using such method of the account and counting the consumption on similar factors, instead of economy can overpay. It is necessary to understand that the distributors measuring only temperature pressure, under no circumstances it is impossible to apply in one separately taken apartment by analogy to heat counters» — Svetlana Nikitin, the leading expert of the direction «makes comments on Pokvartirny the accounting of heat» the Danfoss companies, leading global manufacturer of the energy saving equipment.
The unique correct method of calculation for indications of distributors is proportional division of the all-house consumption registered by the house counter, between apartments proportionally to indications of distributors. Thus, as already it was told above, not less than 50 % of apartments should participate in the scheme, and for increase of accuracy of calculation – all.
«Data from the radiatorny INDIV distributors established on heating devices in apartments, on a radio channel arrive on the floor concentrator, then on the house concentrator and further on the Internet are transferred to the computer in a financial settlements center. Here by means of the transparent and open algorithm corresponding Russian to "Rules of providing utilities», the final settlement being a basis for drawing of monthly accounts for heat» is made — Svetlana Nikitin explains.
The software used for calculations of consumption of heat by subscribers in INDIV AMR system, is provided to management companies, to condominium and financial settlements centers is free, and for training to its use and service of system of the account the Danfoss company holds seminars for the personnel of the maintaining organizations. Such approach, according to the expert, differs from practice of some foreign producers which do not transfer to the customer technology of calculation for the systems and do not provide the direct automated access to reading of indications of devices. In this case to obtain data on a condition of distributors and results of calculations it is possible only at the producer for an additional payment, having signed with it the billingovy contract for 5-10 years.
All this does process of calculation of utility bills opaque to owners for whom the technique and algorithms of calculation remain closed. Compliance of the design procedures, made in the foreign billingovy centers, to the Russian legislation also has no confirmation. From good to the best
In existing housing, unlike new construction, introduction of the individual accounting of heat is still interfaced to a number of problems. If the house old, with noncontrollable system of heating, in it it is necessary to carry out so-called thermomodernization. It includes installation of the automated knots of regulation, all-house heat meters, balancing of struts for controllable and more uniform distribution of heat on struts, and also installation of the automatic radiatorny temperature regulators allowing subscribers independently to regulate the consumption for each room. After that installation of distributors on heating devices becomes logic completion of modernization as now each owner has personal interest in economy and possibility to feel its financial result.
Similar large-scale reorganization of system of heating of the house will pour out to residents in kopek in case of single payment. Therefore creation of the credit schemes allowing owners to spread payments for the period of payback of system is necessary. It will be possible, when power service becomes at last universal practice.
For the last 1-2 years in some regions there are examples of successful carrying out thermomodernization of existing houses within power service. The government of the Russian Federation plans legislation improvement in the field of power service for the purpose of increase in its availability and appeal to business and consumers.
There is also a category of the houses built in recent years with observance of the main modern requirements for energy saving and equipped with automated knots on input and temperature regulators in apartments, but not equipped with means of the individual accounting of heat. For such buildings installation of system of the individual account on the basis of distributors is quite feasible and quickly paid back task.
«Our practice within pilot projects of previous years shows that thanks to regulation of consumption of heat at level of the house and the apartment the economy on payments for heating is possible up to 60 %. In volume of a heating season it makes to 5-6 thousand roubles on the apartment at operating tariffs. Taking into account their annual growth this sum will increase in proportion» — Svetlana Nikitin speaks.
If to remember that the set of distributors counting on the average apartment costs from 2,5 to 8-10 thousand roubles (depending on a way of removal of indications – visual or automated), it is easy to calculate that term of their payback will average from 1 to 3 years at service life of system of 10 years.
It is important to know that use of distributors as devices of the individual account completely legislatively is authorized. Therefore if owners at own expense establish systems of individual regulation and the account not less than in 50 % of apartments, management companies are obliged to accept them in operation, since next month after installation, and also to make on them calculations in an order provided by "Rules of providing utilities».