Processes of inflation and increase of cost of fuel and energy resources inevitably influence owners of apartments at the expense of annual growth of cost of housing-and-municipal services.
For example, tariffs of housing and communal services in Moscow for 2013 already grew by 9,7 %. Separately it should be noted a new method of calculation for the electric power: since September, 2013 social norms of consumption over which calculation is made on the raised tariff are entered.
About 40 % of all developed energy, according to the State Committee for Construction of Russia, are spent for providing residential buildings which in weight are presented by apartment houses of construction of the 1970-1980th years. And 64 % there is more than a half of this energy, namely, it is spent for providing apartment houses with hot water and heat.
Such houses in the majority correspond to the lowest class of the power efficiency «Е», and their design on resistance to heat transfer almost twice below modern requirements even without wear.
According to point 4 of article 11 of the Federal law No. 261-FZ «About energy saving and about increase of power efficiency and about modification of separate acts of the Russian Federation», each 5 years of the requirement of power efficiency multiroom and houses will be reconsidered with a view of increase of savings of energy. In aggregate with an insufficient thermal insulation of protecting designs and growth of tariffs maintenance costs of such house will grow with menacing speed.
To cut down expenses it is possible and, moreover, it is necessary. This purpose is pursued by introduction of actions for savings of energy and to power efficiency increase.
Where heat and how with these to fight vanishes?
Today the main document in this area is Federal law No. 261-FZ from 11/23/2009 (in an edition from 7/2/2013). This document laid the foundation for legal, economic and organizational ways of stimulation of energy saving and increase of power efficiency, that is the unique means of counteraction to growing tariffs of housing and communal services.
The apartment house consumes a large quantity of various resources: waters, thermal and electric energy etc. But how many from the paid resources really it is used, instead of it is spent for nothing?
The first step on this way – obligatory installation of all-house and individual devices of the account within requirements of the Federal law. Counters provide exact definition of consumption of resources by an apartment house, and in certain cases help to reveal in due time leaks in all-house pipelines on a difference in expenses between the general and individual devices of the account.
Installation of counters, anyway, forces inhabitants to watch expenses of resources and to treat them more carefully.
Remember posters of Soviet period on which wrote: «Leaving, turn off the light. Switch off electrodevices»? Now, more than ever, they become actual again. It is difficult to present, but even not the charger of phone not disconnected from the power supply network or a tablet consumes energy. On an electronic portal of the State information system in the field of energy saving and increase of power efficiency there is a set of a similar practical advice for the ordinary inhabitant of an apartment house. Even if with mere curiosity within a month to try to observe some of them, surprise from economy «undertaken of air» will be pleasant.
Difficulties with management of an apartment house also that it consists of a large number of certain owners of inhabited and non-residential premises therefore for its management there are some forms of the organization: Condominium, direct management and the management companies operating on the basis of the contract.
According to the Housing code, owners can sign the contract with management company from 1 year to 5 years. Today standard contracts contain not only the description of property of an apartment house, and also lists of works on its content and cleaning, actions for the energy and power efficiency savings which list is provided in the Resolution of the government of the Russian Federation from 8/23/2010 by No. 646.
Besides other, during the heating period management company the Federal law obliges not only to take measures to savings of thermal energy, but also to observe quality of utilities, and it strongly complicates an objective.
To solve questions of savings of energy it is possible only joint actions, both management company, and residents.
Each of resources consumed by an apartment house possesses potential for its savings and way of its achievement. From which the management company can assume lists of such works, a part, are an additional source of extraction of means, and for the owner of housing – the economy, allowing to cut expenses.
Warmly, which loses an apartment house, leaves, mainly, through walls as the area of this protecting design is much more the area of the same roof.
On the second place on thermal losses there are svetoprozrachny designs. Normalnaya Square of a glazing makes about 20 % from the area of walls, and whatever it was power effective, resistance to a window heat transfer in times is less than resistance of a heat transfer of walls.
The third place on losses of warmth remains behind a roof. Oils add to fire also pipelines of hot water or heating systems. Only because of an insufficient thermal insulation in cellars or on attics they lose to 10 % of thermal energy which for combined heat and power plant already is considered put to the consumer, that is for it it is necessary to pay.
If after all it will be possible to present, how many apartment houses have today an indicator of resistance to a heat transfer several times below normalized and how many made thermal energy leaves through not warmed walls, pipes, windows and a roof, it becomes unclear, why in the large cities not thawed snow still meets. And – the most important – the list of actions for their elimination procedure under the name "power audit", or power inspection of a building allows to receive losses of all necessary resources. Also on a result of power audit the power passport of a building is made.
On September 9, 2011 the vice governor of St. Petersburg R.E. Filimonov and the President of ROCKWOOL Group of companies Elko Van Hil in the presence of his Royal Highness of a kronprinets of Denmark of Frederick signed the Protocol according to which experts of ROCKWOOL carried out power audit of social city objects and prepared the list of measures for increase of their power efficiency.
As objects of researches served: hospital, kindergarten and multiroom house of the 137th series, one of the most widespread in St. Petersburg. For comparison: the share of standard large-panel houses in the city makes 53 %, and houses of the 137th series – 17 % from all housing stock.
At realization of the offered measures the economy of thermal energy will make to 95 %, the electric power – to 25 %, cold water – to 20 %. Thus it should be noted that 60 % of economy of thermal energy are reached at the expense of warming of external walls, and also pipes of heating and hot water in a cellar. The potential for savings of means strikes.
It is necessary to give some concrete ways of fight against losses on a conclusion example on power inspection of an apartment house.
Use of chemical means of cleaning is not more rare than once in five years for pipelines of systems of heating will allow to remove adjournment of mineral salts and will reduce consumption of thermal energy for 2 %. Only 1 mm of such deposits not only reduces capacity of system, but also heat return from them (for 15 %).
In a heating season of combined heat and power plant submits the heat-carrier to a network with parameters depending on temperature of external air, but with a large supply therefore residents often air apartments by means of open window leaves. At existence at the house of individual thermal point it is necessary to equip it with the automated knots of management providing exact weather regulation. It will allow to reduce consumption of thermal energy for 5 %.
Certainly, the most effective economy of thermal energy on heating will be brought by elimination of places of its greatest losses. Replacement of usual double-glazed windows by the power effective will provide 25 % of economy, warming of external protecting designs – to 30 %, replacement of a thermal insulation of systems of heating by cylinders from stone cotton wool – to 30 % of economy of heat submitted on pipes of systems of heating.
From the given examples it is visible that the thermal insulation is important as means of increase of power efficiency of a building as a whole and decrease in expenses of each of his residents in particular. It is necessary to approach to a choice of heatinsulating materials responsibly. They should possess the following characteristics: low factor of heat conductivity, not combustibility, sound absorption, water repellency and paropronitsayemost, stability to deformation, environmental friendliness and biofirmness.
To these characteristics satisfy heatinsulating materials from stone ROCKWOOL cotton wool. They are harmless and allow to keep for the service life of energy more than was spent for its production. All production and plants on its production the first in Russia received professional ecological marking of Ecomaterial which together with necessary expert opinions confirms safety of application of materials for the person and environment. Stone cotton wool is used also as constructive огнезащиты and provides to people in case of an emergency situation precious minutes on rescue.
Power efficiency – a common advantage and a common goal.
Power efficiency in Russia is the that purpose which should be reached on the basis of the accepted decisions at legislative level. She will demand introduction of measures for savings of energy and to its reasonable use, both from owners of separate apartments, and from managing directors of apartment houses of the companies.
To carry out major maintenance of the house which protecting designs do not correspond to modern requirements for resistance to heat transfer, and then to place it in operation without warming of designs, today it is impossible.
Pipelines of systems of heating in old isolation, temperature on which surface it is obvious above surrounding space of a cellar or a cold attic, heat rooms not needing it. From a problem it turns into inadmissible squandering. Modernization and warming of systems of heating allows not only to deliver effectively warmly to consumers, but also to do it without violations of quality of similar services. It once and for all will eliminate the reason of one of the most popular claims which are put forward by residents.
The warmed facade with replacement of double-glazed windows together with warming of an attic or a roof creates improbable effect which inhabitants at once can feel. These actions demand labor and material inputs, however they, at their inclusion in programs of repair of the house, once and for all will convince his residents of interest of management company in preservation of their property and providing comfortable conditions of accommodation.
Here some pluses of external warming of protecting designs by means of stone cotton wool:
- Completely the problem of a promerzaniye and formation of condensate in rooms, and also effect of a draft near cold walls will disappear.
- Stone cotton wool does not interfere with natural diffusion of surpluses of water vapor, and the apartment will not turn into a hothouse with humid tropical climate.
- The heater protects, as "fur coat", building designs from temperature differences and fire distribution, means, their safety and service life without carrying out repairs increase.
- The fibrous structure of products from stone cotton wool gives it sound-proof properties therefore the acoustic comfort of rooms raises.
For management company or condominium application of such decisions will allow to raise a class of power efficiency of the house to the highest (within implementation of requirements of the Federal law No. 261-FZ) to save means of the current maintenance of the house to receive the income of additional works on introduction of power effective decisions.
Moreover, there is a possibility of modernization of an apartment house without attraction of own or budgetary funds. It not "science fiction", and power service.
Power service as investment. Russian experience in condominium.
Acceptance in 2009-2010 of a number of acts in the field of energy saving led to emergence new and already enough widespread business in Europe – granting power services.
Innovation essence such is. The management company signs the contract with power service company which on the basis of the or debt funds holds necessary events and equipment installation for the purpose of increase of economy of resources. This contract is not similar to the turnkey contract; on the functions he should be perceived as an investment. Return of invested funds occurs from the received economy. Thus, the management company can essentially increase power efficiency of an apartment house, at all without having on it superfluous means, and the investor will be interested in high-quality work and the maximum increase of economy, after all the main risks of return of the spent means are assigned to it.
In the Russian market of such companies becomes more and more, a number of resolutions and documents on regulation of relationship in the field of power service contracts, as type of investment activity (standard forms of contracts are accepted; the Resolution of the government of the Russian Federation No. 636 «About requirements to terms of the contract on power service …»).
How this mechanism works, Nikolay Vladimirovich Pitirimov shared with us – the chairman of the board of non-profit partnership of St. Petersburg «City association of house owners» which is the initiator of the project «Power effective quarter».
«The power service company carries out carrying out ekpress-power audit, drawing up of the list of energy saving actions, estimates, equipment purchase, its installation and service, and also execution of function of the Customer.
Return of investments, i.e. return of financial means for a complex of works on energy saving, is carried out at the expense of really received economy of the energy increased by a tariff.
The economy pays off on the basis of data on monthly consumption of energy in three years. Real consumption is subtracted from value of average consumption in a month – the received difference taking into account a tariff goes to payment of the executed works.
The greatest distribution in our practice was received by power service contracts for the term from a year till seven years, depending on the carried-out actions. After return of the financial means spent by all types of works, directed on implementation of the list of energy saving actions, and the contract terminations all economy of energy remains in condominium.
For condominium monthly consumed energy for all term of the power service contract is established at level of monthly average consumption for the last three years, i.e. in physical units does not grow any more that for owners of housing is the main argument for decision-making in favor of the power service contract. Growth is possible only with increase in a tariff at energy since payment goes from the saved energy in the physical units increased by a tariff.
The condominium should provide safety of the equipment and to be financially stable, i.e. monthly to return economy of energy in terms of rubles on account of the executed works».
We sum up.
Let’s count up for an example that will change at application of warming of pipelines and designs as an effective remedy of fight against heat losses in an apartment house:
- decrease in losses of heat through protecting designs of the house will decrease to 30 % (promerzaniye of walls, effects of a draft, condensate loss will be gone);
- decrease in level of street noise at the expense of sound-proof properties of materials from stone cotton wool with fibrous structure;
- the general improvement of a microclimate of premises thanks to the above-mentioned and a high paropronitsayemost of an external heater;
- increase in terms between capital repair work and increase in the general service life of a building at the expense of preservation of bearing and protecting parts of a building in the conditions protected from differences of climate;
- granting to inhabitants of hot water and heating in strict accordance with the set parameters;
- reduction of financial expenses by payment of the imposed penalties, as arrived from residents concerning discrepancy of quality of utilities or the set parameters of a microclimate, and from supervising authorities behind observance of requirements to energy savings.
For the majority of existing apartment houses the way of increase of power efficiency only is begun, but the result will be favorable to all. The management company will receive new sources of the income of works on energy saving and will convince residents that work is conducted in their interests. Use of power service contracts – not only new business for power service companies, but also a way of introduction of energy saving actions at the expense of off-budget financing, and the investor will be terribly interested in quality of provided services. Owners of apartments will raise level of comfort and will receive economy on utilities. And the general national economy will receive free power capacities which are always necessary in any branch of an economy.