get accustomed in Russia
The problem of shortage of housing traditionally is one of the most actual for our country. Having understood hopelessness of attempts to settle all needing in high-rise city apartment houses, the Russian government headed for development of sector of low housing. But to provide the dispersed low settlements with municipal resources where it is more difficult, than to construct. Wide introduction of technologies of construction and operation of houses with zero or minimum consumption of energy, so-called "active" and "passive" should become the decision. Part I Short historical background
As push to total economy for Europeans oil crisis of the 1970th served. In reply to it enthusiasts started to put experiments with power effective houses. With main "locomotive" of this European «house-building revolution» worked (and Germany continues to work). Therefore there is nothing surprising in what in the German city of Freiburg in 1977 «The institute of applied ecology» within the precincts of which movement «the passive house» arose was based. Its purpose – advance in broad masses of idea about need of construction of buildings with the minimum consumption of energy. Result is that fact that today in the world more than 20 thousand «passive houses» are already constructed.
Though the concept of «the passive house» for the last 20 years was developed and improved in Europe, perhaps, her most sign predecessor was the Saskachevansky economical house designed and built in the town of Redzhin of the province Saskatchevan Korolevstva Kanada in 1977. Scientists took part in the project from National Research council and Research council of the province Saskatchevan.
The irony in that Canada in the late seventies and the beginning of the 1980th years was the world leader in the field of power effective construction, but then lost interest to this subject. As a result in Canada researches in this sphere ended more than two decades ago.
In Sweden and Denmark already to the middle of the 80th years of the last century the obligatory construction norms which have generalized results of 10-year experience of enthusiasts of power effective housing construction were accepted. They almost for two decades outstripped the pan-European Instruction on power efficiency of buildings (EPBD). According to these norms the average specific expense of thermal energy on heating of buildings of new construction should make about 100 kW · / (sq.m year).
Further stored in 15 years across all Europe experience of design, construction and operation of a number of power effective houses and buildings laid down in a concept basis «The passive house». It was formulated by Bo Adamson, the professor of Lund university (Sweden) and Wolfgang Faystom from Darmshtadsky institute of housing and environment (Germany). In May, 1988 scientists suggested to call "passive" those buildings in which by means of certain construction decisions so ultraminimum heatlosses that for heating of rooms in them enough "passive" sources of heat are provided.
For verification of the concept by forces of the scientific working group with financial support of the Giessen Ministry of Economics and equipment it was developed, and then and the project of an experimental four-room house is realized. Its construction was complete in 1991 around Kranikhshtayn of the German city of Darmstadt.
The made experiment completely confirmed viability of the concept. By results of exact measurements the Darmstadt passive house consumed energy on heating almost in 6 times less, than the townhouses constructed in Germany according to the national Resolution on energy saving. Therefore for concept introduction «The passive house» in wide European construction practice in 1996 one of her coauthors, Wolfgang Faystom, in Darmstadt based «Institute of the passive house». Thanking, including, and to efforts of his founder to the middle of the 1990th years already there was a certain practice of design, construction and housing operation according to principles of minimization of its impact on environment.
The most known place of mass building of ecological housing in Europe is Voban’s region in German Freiburg which construction was complete in 2000. Today there lives about 4800 inhabitants who occupy one hundred the houses corresponding to modern standards of ultralow consumption of energy («The passive house»). These buildings have so good thermal insulation that for maintenance in them comfortable temperature it is not required heating systems. Actually they are warmed with a sunlight through windows, heat of human bodies and working electrical household appliances.
Houses around Voban are completed with kogenerator. These installations at the same time develop heat and the electric power, and as fuel for them the natural garbage collected on streets and in parks of Freiburg is used. Except kogenerator, in houses are available as well solar batteries. And as on the average total power productivity of many houses of Voban in one and a half time is higher than their need for energy for own needs, these surpluses are on sale to the operator of electric networks – and the house becomes a source of the additional income.
This and other examples well illustrate the course taken by the European Union countries on increase of power efficiency of the housing sector. For the purpose of its streamlining in 2002 the European Parliament accepted the Instruction on power efficiency of buildings (EPBD). In May, 2010 this document is revised by European Parliament, and the direction on a zero energozatratnost (ZeroEnergy) of the buildings planned to commissioning after December 31, 2018 became one of the most significant changes.
Power effective quarters in Europe
In the suburb Hakbridzh to the south of London (Great Britain) other ecological quarter known in Europe is located. It consists of 99 townhouses constructed within the BedZED project. At their construction already become classical "green" and "passive" decisions were applied. Buildings have protecting designs with extremely low heat conductivity, for a glazing three-layer double-glazed windows are used, the supply and exhaust ventilation is equipped with system of a rekuperatsiya of heat. There are accumulators of rain water and installation for waste recycling.
BedZED is positioned as the project with complete refusal of use of the non-renewable energy received from burning of fossil fuel. Heat and an electricity are made at combined heat and power plant where a wood waste is burned. For use of energy of the sun quarter is equipped with a complex of solar batteries in total area 777 sq.m. As a result, in comparison with usual inhabited quarters, in BedZED the economy on heating makes 88 %, on a water consumption — 50 %, on an electricity — 25 %.
As one more example of an ekoposeleniye the area «Western bay» the city of Malmyo can serve in Sweden where in 2001 construction of «the future city» for 300 thousand inhabitants was begun.
In a basis экодомов «Bo01» lies idea of application of imperceptible technical solutions. So, in windows threefold double-glazed windows with a heatreflecting internal covering are established, and warming of walls has high efficiency. Coils of ventilating pipes on an attic on which warm air экстрагируется from rooms, is twisted by pipes through which fresh cold air arrives outside, and heat up it.
All these decisions in a complex allowed to cut down to 10 times expenses on the heating delivered by a regional heating plant. But also it works not at fossil fuel, and on the wind energy transformed in electric wind-driven generators, established in the high sea. The surpluses which thus were formed by summer of hot water till winter are dumped in natural underground cavities in the calcareous rocky bases on which the city of Malmyo is constructed.
Part of II ZeroEnergy in an European way and in Russian
According to the last EPBD version, a zero energozatratnost of a building it is considered its such annual consumption of energy which does not exceed volume of energy made on a place from renewable sources (solar batteries, wind-driven generators, thermal pumps). Except ZeroEnergy option, in the instruction classification of buildings depending on power consumption level is given during their operation.
However each state — the member of the European Union — has a right independently to establish the specific goals within increase of power efficiency and to introduce them in practice. So, for example, the most rigid in Europe norms operate in Germany. The purposes in the construction, which europarliamentarians put by 2019, by German builders of passive buildings are reached two decades ago.
The European requirements to the project of the passive house:
- Protecting cover with ultralow factor of a heat transfer and almost total absence of «cold bridges», including in zones of window apertures and on sites of an adjunction of balcony plates (cover thermos);
- Supply and exhaust ventilation system with a rekuperatsiya of heat of exhaust air for heating of stitched air;
- Spatial orientation of window apertures in premises mainly towards the equator for ensuring receipt of solar energy in rooms and its accumulation in thermal balance;
- Allocation of heat of all internal household and technological sources accumulates in thermal balance of a building;
- Protecting designs of a building are almost air-tight, and for airing there is a possibility of opening of windows.
Northern and southern facades of the passive house
in Darmstadt, Kranikhshtayn Frayburg’s district, Voban’s region «Passive house» in the Southern Butovo (Moscow) «The active house», Moscow area the Saskachevansky economical house, 1979 Quarter of the BedZED project,
Хакбридж, Great Britain Green prospect, area «Western bay»,
city of Malmyo, Sweden Platform of solar panels
power effective house
in. Fish, Ryazan Region.
In Russia in recent years simply power effective buildings build quite a lot. It became especially appreciable after the Ministry of regional development of the Russian Federation issued on April 8, 2011 the Order No. 1612.
In these documents the government of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Regional Development accepted system of classification of the structures, differing from European not only in a form. We accepted the following classes of power efficiency (as its decrease): A, B ++, B +, B, C, D, E. Unlike Europe, in Russia power efficiency indicators not absolute, but relative. Therefore for assignment the structure of this or that class in the Russian system needs to know the power consumption standard for buildings of type corresponding to it.
As an example we will consider an experimental power effective apartment house for families of military which constructed in Moscow in "Nikulino-2". In this house for a heating season 85 kW ·/м2 — it are spent three times less real consumption for old brick buildings is almost twice lower than the standard and approximately. According to domestic rules, this house should be carried to the class "And" — to the highest on a scale of power efficiency. But from the point of view of the German standard for «the passive house», it in five with superfluous times more, than is required. «The active house» in Russian
Whether but it is possible to use the construction standards suitable for Europe and Germany in the conditions of severe Russian climate? It appears — it is possible. «In modern Russia lack of wide interest to construction of houses of the highest classes of power efficiency follows not from severity of climate. The problem that the domestic electric grid companies are not ready to buy an electricity from households» — considers Pavel Fedotov, the manager on work with key clients of department of power electronics of the Danfoss company.
Today in Russia only two objects at which design architects in full tried to consider all requirements «Package of design of the passive house» (PHPP) developed by German «Institute of the passive house» are widely known. It, first, «The active house», constructed in 2011 in the next Moscow area, and, secondly, «The passive house» in the Southern Butovo (Moscow), the certificate which has received in May, 2013 of Passive House.
«The passive house» in the Southern Butovo is designed and built by the Mosstroy-31 company. In it own architectural decisions of the builder are realized, and for engineering systems of heating and hot water supply the heat-carrier heats up from the geothermal thermal pump.
The project «Active house» is realized by joint efforts of a number of the European and Russian companies, including VELUX and "Danfoss" (Denmark). In it all complex of the architectural and engineering decisions necessary for ensuring of positive thermal balance of a building is used. However, because in Russia there is no basic possibility of transfer of superfluous energy to the electric grid companies, designers had to limit generating capacities of the house so that they sufficed only on ensuring functioning of its engineering systems and the household equipment. Therefore, strictly speaking, this «The active house» would be more correct to call «ZeroEnergy House».
These nuances demanded very careful decisions. «As the panel of a solar power station had to limit to the non-standard area (5 sq.m), it was required to develop for it the special inverter» — Pavel Fedotov («Данфосс») gives an example. That in the winter solar batteries did not cover with a snow blanket, them placed not on a roof, and on building walls.
From GVS system designers assigned the main load to solar collectors. Their area — about 16 sq.m. Besides, they partially ensure functioning of heating system. That the solar water heaters established on a roof, did not cover with snow, the system of a reverse allowing not only to receive from them hot water was provided, but also to download it back. A missing part of thermal balance of the house compensate, depending on weather, the thermal pump and windows. «The heating system on the basis of the geothermal thermal pumps Danfoss at expenses of electric capacity in 1 kW received from a solar power station, allows to receive 4-6 kW of capacity of thermal energy — Andrey Osipov, the area manager «Thermal pumps» notes the Danfoss companies. — The temperature of the heat-carrier and its exit are regulated by automatic equipment depending on individual settings of a microclimate for rooms, weather, time of day».
«For heating of residential zones the great value has sunlight, the effect from which influence amplifies the energy saving windows which are passing warmly inside and not letting out it back at the expense of a selective covering — the project manager on a development from outside «The country project» Vera Leonov adds. — All windows are for this purpose involved: mansard and vertical. The last play a special role in the winter. They catch radiation of the winter sun having a low angle of lead over the horizon». In summer heat of a window outside from sunny side are closed by marquisettes with the electric drive. And from the shaded party they automatically open for ventilation and cooling.
One more example of the Russian power effective construction — the house in. Fish the Ryazan region which settling is complete on June 27, 2012. Here some economic decisions providing electro – and a structure heat supply are used. Near a building the special platform on which panels of the solar batteries connected to the all-house power supply network by means of the inverter which will transform a direct current in variable, used in a life are established is taken away. Vacuum solar collectors are applied to hot water supply. The active system of heating of the house is provided with the heat-carrier by means of thermal pumps. Application of power effective technologies allowed residents of the house to save to 25 % on payment of utilities in comparison with usual houses. Respectively, it is necessary to recognize this building as possessing high class of power efficiency – «B».
The system of ventilation is made the hybrid. In frosts and in a heat it compulsory, with heat rekuperatsiya. In the rest of the time natural airing through automatically opening windows operated by "clever" system with sensors of humidity and level of CO2 is made.
Modern practice of power effective construction in Russia approximately corresponds to the period of the middle of the 80th years in Europe and the world. However, unlike the Old World of that time, today we have on arms not only world experience of construction of buildings with the increased power efficiency, but also an adjusted mass production of all accessories for them: from materials for protecting designs to the engineering equipment of any systems. Things are easy: to begin.
Classification of buildings by EPBD
- The old buildings constructed till 1970th years, spend for the heating and cooling about 300 kW · / (sq.m year);
- New buildings which were under construction from 1970 to 2002 — 150 kW · / (sq.m year);
- Houses of low power consumption, obligatory to construction since 2002 — 60 kW · / (sq.m year);
- The passive house, observance of a standard for which it is obligatory since 2019 — 15 kW · / (sq.m year);
- The house of zero energy which architecturally have the same standard, as the passive house, but inzhenerno equipped so that to consume only only that energy which also develops — 0 kW · / (sq.m year);
- «The house energy plus» («The active house») which by means of the engineering equipment established in it — solar batteries, collectors, thermal pumps, recuperators, etc. — develops more energy, than itself consumes.