Historically centralized heating (TsO) in Russia was and remains prevailing system of ensuring comfort in the big and small cities. Now generation of heat occupied about 500 combined heat and power plants and 66 thousand boiler rooms. The extent of networks in two-trumpet calculation comes nearer to 180 thousand km, providing conditions for life of 44 million citizens. Depth of penetration of TsO systems impresses: 81 % of housing stock are heated exactly in such a way (in more detail http://www.abok.ru/for_spec/articles.php?nid=4546).
Proceeding from it and in view of high density of urban population and obvious advantages of a cogeneration, refusal of TsO it is hardly possible, despite periodically arising attempts of introduction of alternative schemes, like roof boiler rooms and so forth. Nevertheless, modernization of TsO systems is an urgent need. The reason is simple: the most part of technical solutions hopelessly obsolete and not only does not consult with the tasks, but leads to emergence of global problems in economy. It is enough to tell that on production of heat today leaves to a third of all primary energy in the country that in times above world indicators.
Modernization: "for" and contra
For years of reforms the technical condition of TsO systems practically did not change – the average efficiency of boiler rooms grew with 81 to 83 %. Thus the share of losses in networks (together with unrecorded losses) increased to 14-17 %. Moreover, experts estimate leaks in municipal networks at 15-25 %. Losses from a razregulirovannost of systems and the related retops reach 50 %! The situation is so difficult that demanded development of the special federal law and the special program. Federal Law No. 261 accepted in 2009 «About energy saving and about increase of power efficiency and about modification of separate acts of the Russian Federation», and also a state program from 2010« Energy saving and increase of power efficiency for the period till 2020» caused heated debate about the most effective methods of energy saving. And one of practical measures is replacement of open systems of the heat supply still widespread in Russia, on closed. It is supposed that transition should be carried out till 2020 that assumes high intensity of modernization.
It is known that the open scheme of a heat supply means that water for hot water supply (GVS) undertakes from the general heating system. "Closing" of systems means that GVS prepares on a consumption place by heating of cold water in individual (ITP) or central (TsTP) heatpoints which differ number of end users (from one to several houses).
Advantages of the closed systems are obvious: decrease in losses of feeding water, reduction of expenses by water preparation, possibility of optimization of regulation of temperature of the heat-carrier, improvement of quality of hot water and so forth. The main and most obvious problem of transition to the closed scheme of a heat supply – high cost of modernization, it is necessary as to reconstruct the vast majority of houses (for today equipment modern heatpoints does not exceed 20 %). Besides, the modern equipment demands the qualified service that is not always possible.« Unfortunately, – Yury Egorov, the specialist of Teplo Kolomny Municipal Unitary Enterprise, the city where very actively there is a modernization of system of a heat supply speaks, – management companies often have no enough qualified personnel capable qualitatively to work with the modern equipment. We are ready to assist in training of specialists, but everything rests against financing».Также it is possible to hear opinion on increase in operational costs as the electric power whereas elevators habitual for open systems do not demand an electricity as adjustment goes, finally, at the expense of pressure difference on entering and proceeding pipelines is necessary for thermal point and pumps. However hardly it is possible to consider this argument convincing.
To spend, to save
Without concerning while modernization cost, we will deal with "simplicity" and «low power consumption» open systems. The most obvious lack of elevators – the main distributing knots of system – is the low efficiency which even at near optimal to a mode to adjustment (besides that the branched-out system to adjust extremely not easy) does not exceed 10 %. Other problem – an unstable hydraulic mode and poor quality of the heat-carrier, caused to constants podmesy unprepared water. To change this situation it is impossible, as it is programmed by a system functional – the heat-carrier is continuously spent for needs of GVS. A collateral shortcoming is poor quality of hot water for consumers as it is polluted by additives (antiskeylant and so forth) and moves at the overestimated temperature and pressure that is inconvenient for the end user.
In turn constant подмес fresh waters in the heat-carrier are broken by its chemical composition, increasing concentration of salts of rigidity. Their deposits in pipes essentially increase hydraulic resistance of systems of heating. Let’s notice that at resistance in 2 m of a water column elevators in general cease to work.
Thus, the economy «here and now», by maintenance of out-of-date systems, does not justify itself not only in long-term, but also the near-term outlook. On the other hand, problem understanding at the state level gives the chance to find not too expensive ways of modernization. As the reached effect (on the average the economy makes about 30 %) allows to cut essentially operational costs and, as a result, to have an opportunity to pay for reconstruction gradually, without putting a serious damage to poor municipal budgets.
It is possible to call an example of such approach the pilot project of Ministry for the Power Generating Industry in Yekaterinburg, begun in 2012. It is planned that in 5 years, by 2017, transfer of the city to the closed system of a heat supply will be finished. During this time, using local practices, department will develop the standard federal program. It, in turn, becomes a basis for all large Russian cities.
The choice of an experimental platform is not casual: the old industrial city has difficult and extremely worn-out infrastructure. Serious actions for its updating it was not carried out from Soviet period. Successful implementation of the project will allow to fulfill practically any possible situations upon transition to modern systems of a heat supply.
The ministry estimated the project at 60-80 billion rubles: the part of money will go from the federal budget, the rest will be provided the company «by KES Holding» (one of the largest energy companies of Russia), and also regional and local budgets.
Participation of the energy company stimulated a choice of the modern equipment which is long ago a basis practically all West European thermal networks.
«To realize the scheme on closing of system of a heat supply, – the regional director of "Danfoss" for the Ural region Igor Spiridonov speaks, – it is necessary to establish modern heatpoints in all buildings. Complexity is that old ITP cannot be modernized, having simply put the new heat exchanger. It needs as well new automatic equipment, controlers, systems of weather regulation etc. It demands not only material, but also time – and labor costs of the qualified experts».
Nevertheless, the expert considers a task feasible as the wide experience of introduction of such systems, both in new, and in old building is already stored. For example, under the strategic agreement with one of the largest developers, the RENOVA-stroygrupp company (since March it is renamed into KORTROSS Group), "Danfoss" carries out the help in design and delivers complete heatpoints to again erected area "Academic". As a result of application of such technical solutions the management company of the residential district estimates aggregate energy saving effect at 30 %.
Who pays tick?
As it was already told, inevitable transition to the closed systems of a heat supply will manage to treasury expensively. Nevertheless, there are effective ways if not cardinally to reduce, to optimize expenses. Most interesting of them is the conclusion so-called power service, or performance – the contract.
In brief, the sense it is reduced to that for the energy saving modernization conducting to economy, the supplier of a resource pays. Decrease in consumption of energy allows to reduce investments in its production, so, to lower expensive investments into growth of capacities. Besides, money comes back to enough short time. For example, power service contracts of "Mosenergosbyt", one of the largest suppliers of energy in the Moscow region, are calculated on only three years, it suffices for complete calculation for the contract.
According to the similar scheme transfer to the closed systems and in Gorno-Altaisk is made. The city, no less than the region, is rather poor. City systems of a heat supply are in a precritical condition and demand urgent repair. Therefore the municipal administration decided to use possibilities of the power service contract with the local power producer of "Altayenergosbyt" – under municipal financial guarantees.
The Barnaul company "VITOTEKH" is engaged in implementation of the project. The plan developed by it accepted by administration of Gorno-Altaisk, assumes a complete elimination of all TsTP with installation in AITP buildings – the automatic individual thermal points containing modules of heating and GVS. «It is more expensive way, – the director general of the VITOTEKH company Sergey Stepanenko speaks, – however it considers individual heatlosses of each building. Besides, each consumer can independently choose comfortable for it a heating mode. The principle is simple:« you want more hotly – pay more»! Our practice which has been saved up, in particular, in Barnaul, showed that the economy received as a result reaches 35 % in inhabited sector and 50 % in administrative, and economy on hot water supply — 20 %».
After technical and economic calculation the administration of Gorno-Altaisk accepted more radical option – owing to its bigger efficiency and the fastest payback. Economic calculation showed that return of the means invested in the project will occur within 5 years that arranged both administration, and power engineering specialists, and bank.
Modernization in Russian, generally, differs nothing from modernization in Danish or in German. The unique difference – problem scale. But also it is noncritical under condition of a rational approach to a choice of technical solutions and financing schemes.