Prospects of individual heating in Russia
What is more effective in the conditions of the city — the centralized or independent heat supply? This question has no definite answer. Opinions are shared not only at branch level, but also the whole states. Merits and demerits of each concept should be considered with reference to the existing practice, available resources, regulatory base and housing stock. We will weigh all pros and cons of each approach and we will estimate prospects of their combined use.
The subject of individual heating arose in Russia not suddenly, and because of problems of purely economic character. Crisis of non-payments in heat supply branch in the 1990th, wear of heating systems above permitted standard and poor quality of services of the housing and communal services some enterprises generated the whole bouquet of problems, including interruptions in giving of heat and the high prices for it. Attempts to refuse service in general became obvious reaction of the population and to provide themselves with heat independently, the benefit the corresponding equipment is available. Precedents of spontaneous installation of gas coppers on the scale of the whole multiroom buildings are known. From the legal point of view it is possible, though a question and спорный1. But matter not only in a law letter: to heat by means of an individual copper a cottage and the city apartment — these are different things.
First of all, it is possible only in the installed gas buildings. The second moment — safety. If the gas stove turns on only for cooking, the heating copper works constantly. Let there is a choice of the equipment answering to the highest modern safety requirements; but if each owner chooses a copper independently, neighbors always have reason for concern.
The main question consists in safety of a dymoudaleniye. The Russian standards forbid to deduce flues through facades of buildings therefore in reality only inhabitants of the top floors or inhabitants of houses with independent hot water supply (gas "columns") where there are collective flues legally use individual heating can. Remains open and a question of heating of rooms of the general using — ladders, entrances, interroom and liftovy halls, cellars and attics, utility rooms. If the house was projected counting upon a central heating, refusal of it can lead to a promerzaniye of designs and to become the reason of an emergency condition of all building. Residents in this case hardly can count on moving or compensation.
If and to use individual heating, or to build new buildings with such system of a heat supply, or to pass to it in the course of reconstruction (major maintenance). Attempts of transfer to gas heating of separately taken apartments in centrally being heated houses look in general doubtfully.
That we should build the house
Having rejected idea about self-determination of separate apartments in questions of the organization of heating, we will consider this concept in housing construction scales. Really, the independent scheme of a heat supply of each apartment looks attractively, though this independence and relative: gas all the same main. Practice of the individual accounting of the electric power and water says that the economy can appear more than essential. And reasons of comfort play not the last role when each owner has a possibility independently to define for themselves the beginning and the end of a heating season and if necessary to arrange it though in the summer. Use of a double-circuit copper considerably reduces also cost of hot water. All this, together with wide foreign experience, grants to projects of buildings with individual heating the right to life. Today in their Russia it is constructed already much. Similar projects are especially popular in the Chernozem region, they are realized in Smolensk, Serpukhov, Bryansk, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Kaliningrad, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan and other cities. According to some sources, cost is warm in similar houses in 4-5 times less, than when using a central heating.
And still to estimate a situation correctly in city scales. «When we speak about a separate building in a clean floor, individual heating sees both convenient, and favorable, especially if to consider cost of leading of a heating plant from a certain hypothetically remote source. However if it is a question of the city where necessary generating capacities are available or under construction, such approach is represented rash. In this case refusal of the central heat supply means transfer of city combined heat and power plants from a cogeneration mode on a kondensatsionny cycle. It will cause essential increase of cost electric power kilowatt-hour, plus avalanche growth of thermal pollution of the atmosphere and deterioration of an ecological situation in the city» — Anton Belov, the deputy director of thermal department of the Danfoss company, leading global manufacturer of the energy saving equipment explains.
According to the expert, in Russia to speak about individual heating it is meaningful, if connection to heating systems or is impossible, or is complicated and consequently costs too expensive. Also projects of the social importance can be considered. For example, when construction of new housing is braked because of lack of necessary thermal capacities. However, it already errors of town-planning policy which should be minimized.
There is also other widespread decision — house boiler rooms. In many cases it is more economically justifiable, as equipment and construction cost decreases, design and operation of intra house engineering communications — gas supply, water supply, ventilation and a dymoudaleniye becomes simpler.
There is at a house boiler room and one more, a decided advantage: possibility to build skyscrapers in the absence of the central heat supply. Systems of gas supply of low pressure used in residential buildings have essential restrictions on number of storeys therefore to construct "skyscraper" with individual heating in apartments it is impossible in principle. If the source of heat in the house the general, is not present restrictions. This decision is widely used today, for example, in Khimki situated near Moscow where almost a half of high-rise new buildings have roof boiler rooms. However, for example, in Moscow they are forbidden, therefore for a boiler room it is necessary to provide separate construction near the house.
It is necessary to pay attention and to alternative power sources which also enter today into wide use. «The need for heat and hot water supply of low buildings can be completely covered by means of geothermal thermal pumps — Andrey Osipov, the area manager «Thermal pumps» considers the Danfoss companies. — In certain cases cost of such decision already at a construction stage, without payback during operation, appears less than a cost of construction of a gas house boiler room as there is no need to pull to a building the gas pipeline. Use of geothermal energy allows to refuse not only the central heat supply, but also from the main gas that creates to housing construction one more degree of freedom».
As an example the expert provides the project of a heat supply of kindergarten realized in 2012 "Spot of sunlight" in Tomsk. Because of features of an arrangement of object installation and commissioning of the thermal pump Danfoss appeared cheaper than connection to a city heating system.
As to high-rise buildings and big housing estates, here various decisions are often used in a combination with each other. For example, the thermal pump can work in a tandem with a gas boiler room or a central heating, be an additional source of heat, for example, for heating of hot water in GVS system heat of utilized air.
Pokvartirnoye — not necessarily individual
Arguing on pokvartirny heating, we often forget that behind this term two various concepts disappear at once. — heating by means of individual coppers — experts call the first local heating. The second — pokvartirny distribution of heat submitted centrally, from a house boiler room or a city heating system.
Gained in domestic housing construction the greatest distribution vertical one-trumpet (stoyakovy) distributing of system of heating has a number of shortcomings, and they in many respects explain interest of Russians to individual heating. However the optimum solution of existing problems is absolutely in other plane. «In multystoried housing construction of system with pokvartirny distributing are real alternative to systems of local heating. It is possible to tell that it is the combined approach which allows to realize within system of the central city heat supply all advantages of individual heating» — Anton Belov makes comments.
As the expert notes, the main claims of citizens consist in impossibility independently to regulate heat giving to apartments and to pay only for actually spent energy. Really, when the general struts penetrate each room, to regulate giving of the heat-carrier and to consider heat expense within the separate apartment difficult. In Russia today such buildings make to 80 % of existing housing stock, from here and discontent scale.
«At pokvartirny distributing of heating on each knot of input regulating fittings and an individual heat meter are established, the question of an individual approach to consumption and heat payment thus is solved. The similar scheme allows, as well as at individual heating, arbitrarily to build intra room system, to use heating devices of a various configuration and design. At last, two-trumpet distributing applied in such schemes is more economic in comparison with one-trumpet, used in the majority of stoyakovy systems» — Anton Belov explains.
To be fair it should be noted that today already there are similar decisions and for traditional Russian one-trumpet systems with vertical distributing. So, the INDIV AMR system for the pokvartirny accounting of heat does it possible and in usual buildings of standard building. Instead of traditional flowmeters in system the radiatorny distributors registering heatreturn of heating devices are used. For management of heat consumption in this case, however, as well as practically in any system, automatic radiatorny temperature regulators are applied. As to low power efficiency of one-trumpet system to raise it will help the thermostatic balancing AB-QT valves, allowing to make a heat-carrier expense on struts adjustable. All these decisions can be used without restriction including at major maintenance of houses. Thus, delights of individual heating become available to all Russians. . without transition to individual heating!