During an era of global deficiency of fuel and energy resources strategy of power efficiency is a general vector of economic development of any country, and Russia here not an exception. In this regard special value is gained by the international integration, an exchange of experience and the advanced energy saving technologies between the states. Experience of the next neighbors with which us unites not only geographical proximity, but also similar conditions of economic development is especially interesting to our country. For example, Denmark living in climatic conditions similar to ours. As well as Russia, this country possesses own stocks of oil and gas and historically uses technologies of the central heat supply, but, despite it, chose a course on energy saving, and today takes a steady first place in the world on this indicator.
It is possible to speak about a problem of power efficiency and transition to renewables at the most different levels. But if meetings of heads of states or federal laws (as, for example, FZ-261 «About energy saving», operating in Russia) set the general direction of movement to more rational use of resources, the question of a choice of concrete energy saving measures on places lays down on municipalities, the concrete enterprises and consumers of energy resources, including — owners of housing. Finally, they define, the economy will be how notable. Thus, for successful transition to power effective technologies, the partnership of representatives of all levels of a power vertical, business and individuals is necessary.
Let’s consider, how this partnership works in Denmark.
Power efficiency capital
The unconditional leader in the field of energy saving is the capital of Denmark – Copenhagen. Despite concentration of infrastructure and more than the million population, the city plans to stop completely CO2 emissions in the atmosphere by 2050. In particular, municipal authorities set the task to the designated term completely to pass to use of renewables (the sun, a wind, a geotermiya, a biomass) in megalopolis scales. The role in this process should play and system of sorting and processing of a waste. Created for achievement of these purposes the general plan among other initiatives includes reforming of systems of power consumption and power production.
It is interesting that in a segment of alternative power in Copenhagen to invest in the future and receive from it the income any citizen can. For example, inhabitants of a commune have possibility to get a share of the wind turbine. Many projects are realized by the private companies, and the guarantor on the credits (and at the same time and as supervising authority) all commune acts.
Natural obstacle for introduction of any power effective decisions in Copenhagen is that 70 % of buildings in the city were under construction even before introduction of any standards concerning energy saving. In it at the Danish capital much in common with Moscow and other large cities of our country. Therefore reconstruction and modernization of similar objects for the purpose of increase of their power efficiency was recognized as one of the main sources of potential economy. It is clear that scales of necessary actions do not allow to lead them everything for the state account — and it also a common problem of Copenhagen and the Russian cities. Both in Denmark, and in our realities a key to the solution of a question is search of suitable model of financing. Especially it is actual for the buildings being in a municipal property.
It is indicative that in a basis of all projects of increase of power efficiency in the city the condition was put: any transformations are necessary for conducting without life rise in price for the population. According to calculations, as a result of all undertaken measures the average family can even save about 350 Danish kroner a month (about 1900 rubles at a current rate).
It is necessary to notice that with initiatives about increases of power efficiency of municipal economy the authorities of some Russian cities and regions act also. And though not always realized projects are so large-scale, but they also give very considerable effect, and in real time.
Among domestic examples of realization of energy saving actions in scales of the whole municipality it is possible to allocate Naberezhnye Chelny — one of the first power effective municipalities of Russia. Here modernization of city system of a heat supply and GVS began in 2001 when dynamically growing city fully felt shortage of available capacities for a heat supply both new, and old areas.« Before acceptance at the end of July, 2007 of the law No. 185-FZ «About Fund of assistance to reforming of housing and communal services» in Naberezhnye Chelny knots of automatic control in hundred multiroom houses were already mounted — Edward Gilfanov, the representative in the region of the Danfoss company which were taking part in implementation of city programs of energy saving tells. — Actually here began modernization for 2,5 years earlier, than on the country as a whole». As a result of stage-by-stage realization of energy saving actions, including transfer of housing stock to adjustable consumption of heat, the city managed to achieve more than 30 % of its economy.
The program of energy saving realized in Kolomna situated near Moscow is not less interesting. Reconstruction of city boiler rooms with automation of management processes by holiday of thermal energy and hot water became its important stage. In particular, within reconstruction boiler rooms were transferred to the closed system of a heat supply (at which the heat-carrier is not spent for needs of GVS). As to housing stock of the city, here in houses the automated individual thermal Danfoss points with pogodozavisimy regulation are established. Implementation of the program will allow to reduce cost of heating both for the city budget, and for inhabitants of Kolomna. Besides, it should increase comfort of accommodation in apartment houses, having solved problems traditional for the Russian small cities with a heat supply.
Local economy — global results
Brag of results of energy saving can today not only the Danish capital, but also a commune of Sonderborg (the Southern Denmark) which authorities laid down for themselves the ambitious aim — by 2015 to achieve decrease in emissions in CO2 atmosphere on a quarter, and by 2025 — to get rid of them at all. For the fastest decrease in issue it was decided to use at the same time two approaches: on the one hand, to increase power efficiency of local economy, and with another — to increase a share of renewables so that by 2025 they remained unique in the region.
As well as on start of the program of increase of efficiency of an expenditure of resources in Russia, the main efforts of administration of Sonderborga first of all were directed on transformation of the most power expensive spheres of economy and activity: the central and individual heating in city and rural areas, transport, the industry of receiving the electric power from fossil fuel, etc. The feature distinguishing the project in Sonderborge from experience of the Russian regions, the vast scale and an involvement of local economy is. To achieve it it was possible by means of PR campaign which at all was not limited to appeals on billboards.
The analysis of a situation showed that about 45 % of energy in Sonderborge are consumed by private houses (in some Russian cities this indicator reaches 60-70 %) and another 30 % — the local companies, local business. Thus, in increase of efficiency of use of energy locals should play a key role. The main question consisted in how to motivate the population to introduce innovations, for example, in the private houses which middle age, as well as in our country, made more than 60 years — even more than on the average across Russia.
The Zero project («Project Zero) within which available language described easy and safe decisions for city and private building became the decision: use of alternative power sources, energy saving household appliances, thermal automatic equipment, warming of facades and many other things. Their realization allows to save not simply energy, but over time conducts to emergence of its surpluses. House owners, architects, advisers and representatives of the sphere of trade take part in the program real estate.
The similar concept moves ahead and in a business segment. For example, the companies are offered to analyse own issue of CO2, to introduce more effective technologies. Peculiar "award" for works is possibility to use the logo of the program well familiar to private consumers and increasing loyalty to production of business structures. For the small enterprises it became serious competitive advantage in the market, and for large, for example, Linak (the producer of aktuator – electric linear drives) — reflection of their social responsibility and a contribution to image. The program of certification of shops in which more than 60 legal entities already took part had big success also.
The scale of an involvement and PR campaign led to what even intermediate results of the program impress. For the first 5 years of implementation of the project (by 2010) it was possible to reach total decrease in volumes of emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere for 18 %, and also to create 800 new workplaces at the expense of development of building industry, a "green" central heating and the industry of power consulting.
In 5 years of work on the project initiators not only publicly told about a power efficiency problem, but also changed a principle of the activity. Now it is a question of modernization at absolutely other level — about creation of new projects of city development, more effective plannings of hundreds and thousand houses. If from the very beginning of «Project Zero» was only demonstration of possibilities of power effective technologies, today it is the whole industry within which new houses, municipal buildings and schools, including using alternative power sources are under construction.
It should be noted that such buildings are today and in Russia. The first experimental "active" house concerns them for private accommodation which was constructed recently in Moscow area by the VELUX company. At the heart of the project the principle of full non-volatility, or positive power balance is put: the building itself makes for itself energy. In particular, the geothermal thermal pumps Danfoss receiving warmly directly from soil are applied to its heating.
One more example of use of geothermal energy – the "Spot of sunlight", the kindergarten of a class of power efficiency first in Russia "And", constructed in Tomsk. Here for receiving heat the thermal pumps Danfoss in total capacity 126 KW receiving energy of Earth from 24 wells by depth of 100 meters are also used. Cost of such decision was initially below, than connection of a building of kindergarten to a city heating system. Thus, within unique Tomsk experiment power effective technologies paid back themselves already in the course of construction, without having managed to save still any gigacalorie of heat. Today the kindergarten successfully functions, and the winter of 2012-2013 showed that renewables quite allow to do without use of the traditional. Therefore in the city hall of Tomsk decided to apply available experience at construction of new child care facilities.
Found in our country application and to other technologies of obtaining alternative energy, for example, of solar power or wind stations. Despite the skeptical relation of many Russians, they, according to experts, are capable to give very serious economic effect.« The myth that Russia, with its geographical position, can and not count on solar power is very widespread. However examples of successful use of solar energy can be seen directly in the Moscow region. So, in the company «Regional power» (Dmitrov) placed a geliostantsiya directly on a roof of own office. The total capacity of panels reaches 12,9 kW, and the Danfoss inverter allows to transform the received energy to an alternating current. The developed capacity suffices on a food of the office, and also the restaurant located nearby and shop. On the average from an external network per day these objects consume no more than 1-2 kW-hours of the electric power» — Pavel Fedotov, the manager on work with key clients of department of power electronics of the Danfoss company, leading global manufacturer of the energy saving equipment tells.
In the conditions of continuous growth of cost of fossil fuel and other energy resources conversation on power efficiency is inevitable. The next European neighbors who fully faced deficiency of energy resources during the first energy crisis of the 1970th can become a good source of useful experience in this area for Russia. And, as practice shows, the Russian regions already start to make use of this experience successfully.