To have own housing – a cherished dream of any person. However if purchase of the apartment and its repair are one-time costs, payment of utilities – a monthly tribute for the right to live in heat and a cosiness. A time of the account for ZhKU make some thousand rubles and essentially "beat" under the family budget. Whether so these expenditure are inevitable?
Experience of the western house owners where tariffs for service of apartment houses are much higher, than in Russia, proves that there is a real possibility to save. Specialists of Rosstroy counted up that nearly 50 % of energy resources are spent for nothing because of an inefficient thermal insulation of designs, irrational use of thermal and electric energy. In other words, the owner of standard city real estate overpays for its contents at least twice.
With a view of power consumption reduction
The account for the electric power, certainly, is defined by the "run" kilowatts which number increases depending on frequency and duration of use of household appliances, from what are established bulbs what is used ware for cooking and whether burns at night light in a corridor. However there are also other factors influencing an expense of electric energy. For example, insufficient heating of the apartment by means of batteries of a central heating and, as a result, the compelled heating by electrodevices, and also heat losses through external designs and the broken glasses in windows on a staircase.
To reduce power consumption of residential and public buildings, the government of the Russian Federation passed in 2009 the Federal law No. 261 «About energy saving and increase of power efficiency». According to this document, by 2012 owners of rooms in apartment houses will be obliged to establish devices of the accounting of used resources: waters, natural gas, electric and thermal energy.
There is also Federal law of the Russian Federation from July 21, 2007 of No. 185 «About Fund of assistance to housing and communal services reforming» within which the federal program on joint financing of expenses of condominium operates. Any housing cooperative or management company can receive now the state subsidies for carrying out major maintenance in apartment houses if they are not subject to demolition, reconstruction and are not in an emergency condition. Also it is a question just of replacement of the broken, not tight windows, warming of bearing designs and installation of devices of the account.
To become participants of this program, it is necessary to organize condominium, to hold general meeting, to make the list of necessary works, and also to agree about terms, cost and an order of financing of the project. Further the statement is left also the statement to housing committee which makes the decision on allocation of money. Similar laws are urged to help with achievement of the purpose on savings of energy resources in our country, and also to impulse to improvement of work of services housing and communal services. However «for the state hope and itself not плошай» – and to each Russian not superfluous would be to reflect on how it is possible to reduce an expense of thermal energy own forces.
Autumn and winter – "payment" time?
When behind a window there come colds, and batteries of a central heating hardly work, we get warm things and we include heaters that at home it was warm. The winter together with which there is the cold air getting through cracks in windows and joints of wall panels then comes … And the account for the electric power "grows before the eyes" meanwhile!
The reason of an irrational expense of heat is quite often connected with the wrong control of all-house system of heating. So, if the temperature of the heat-carrier arriving in the apartment, above necessary level, leads it to room reheating because of what residents are compelled to hold constantly window leaves opened and «to warm streets», for what also it is necessary to pay. If the temperature is lower than necessary level, it is necessary to turn on electroheating devices, so, «to wind on the counter» additional kilowatts.
To correct this situation it is possible in two ways: or to balance work of all-house system of heating by the appeal to management company, or to establish a temperature regulator on each battery in the apartment. Convenience of this device is that the temperature regulator maintains the set temperature in an automatic mode. However installation of the equipment should be carried out by professionals that the device did not interfere with an easy access of liquid through a strut, differently at neighbors the real winter will begin. At the expense of installation of a temperature regulator are reached two purposes: comfort of stay in a room raises and costs of heat decrease.
Not less heat in the city apartment "leaves" through windows, an entrance door, ventilation, seams between wall panels and to a lesser extent – through walls and ceilings. To solve a problem of leakage of heat through windows it is possible by warming of designs. It allows to reduce energy consumption for 15 %. Except seal of cracks not installation of additional glass which creates the air layer acting as a heat insulator will be superfluous. Certainly, the most expedient solution of a question – installation of modern plastic windows. For increase in efficiency of a method between a room and a balcony also it is recommended to replace a window.
For minimization of thermal losses through a balcony or a loggia, except warming or replacement of windows, it is necessary to carry out works on a thermal insulation of a floor and walls. A modern, economic and durable thermal insulation – stone cotton wool. Heaters from this natural material are chemically inert, ecologically safe, possess high stability to influence of solvents and have small weight that is especially important at work on a balcony. And the thermal insulation from stone cotton wool of production of the Danish company ROCKWOOL possesses also excellent sound-proof properties which are reaching at the expense of fibrous structure of an initial product.
One more important advantage of a thermal insulation from stone cotton wool – ensuring fire safety. The made foam thermal insulation can have group of combustibility Г3 (normalnogoryuchy) or Г4 (silnogoryuchy). Fibers of stone cotton wool maintain temperature to 1000°С and in case of a fire detain flame distribution. Production of ROCKWOOL belongs to group of nonflammable materials (NG in accordance with GOST 30244).
In many European countries cost of an insurance of a design depends on degree of combustibility of finishing materials. And though the Russian insurance companies for the present do not consider this factor, providing a pozharobezopasnost of own house after all an important component of care of a family.
The following object of loss of heat – an entrance door. Ideal option – installation modern shumo-and a heatinsulating design or at least warming and a zadelyvaniye of all cracks on door perimeter. To reduce losses of heat it is also possible by installation of the second door, for example, usual interroom. Not warming of places of the general using will be superfluous also. As a rule, in apartment houses entrances are heated, and expenses on the electric power are distributed between residents. Actions for replacement of the broken windows, warming and installation of access doors will allow to cut down considerably expenses on heating of the "general" zones, to reduce heatlosses through entrance doors of apartments and, as a result, to reduce an expense of electric energy.
In modern apartments ventilation is laid only in kitchen, however more often and through it leaves much precious heat. According to construction norms to dismantle or completely to close ventilating mine it is impossible. Seal of cracks reduces natural circulation of air streams that leads to deterioration of a microclimate and need of more frequent airing of a room therefore optimum option of reduction of heatlosses through ventilation – lattice installation with the being regulated size of openings. In a warm season the crack can be made wider, in cold–.
Similar works on warming of internal and protecting designs allow to increase temperature in the apartment on the average on 4-7°С, relieve of need of turning on of electroheating devices. According to the experts, cost of works and necessary materials pays off in half a year.
That the account for the electric power were not ruinous, it is necessary to reduce, first, an expense of thermal energy, and secondly, it is rational to use an electricity in a life. Here some simple recommendations which will allow to save some hundreds, or perhaps and thousand rubles:
1. The electric power in places of public using. It is a question of a corridor, a hall and a bathroom. Installation of energy saving lamps and motion sensors is optimum. They automatically include/turn off the light depending on finding of the person in a zone of their work. Energy saving lamps work at least a year, during this time completely itself pay back and essentially save funds for payment of accounts for the electric power.
One more way of decrease in a power consumption in places of public using – light furnish of walls and ceilings. If there is a possibility, a part of a wall (for example, in a drawing room) it is possible to make svetoprozrachny, from glass or polycarbonate to add in a corridor of natural lighting.
2. The electric power in kitchen. At a ware choice for the electric stove consider that the pan or a frying pan with the bent bottom and not corresponding to diameter of a ring "eats" to 60 % of energy therefore buy ware with the size of a bottom suitable for your plate.
If for boiling of water the electric kettle is used, it is not necessary to fill each time all volume as members of household all the same will put it to be heated once again that will cause an additional expense of the electric power. It is better to pour a necessary quantity of water during the concrete moment.
Buy household appliances of category of A.Eshchyo na design stages them develop taking into account energy saving technologies. Especially it concerns refrigerators. By the way, ideal location of the refrigerator – the shaded and cool corner, far away from the electric stove and other heating-up devices.
3. The electric power in a bathroom. Attentively study instructions to the washing machine. Not all models at incomplete loading gather an optimum quantity of water for washing. Than more car uses waters and the above lifts its temperature, the more electric power is spent. Select the optimum program of washing at incomplete loading of a drum.
4. Electric power and cleaning. Release the vacuum cleaner container from garbage more often. Package filling at least for 30 % conducts to increase in power consumption at 50 %. Try to iron slightly damp linen, after all to smooth the overdried fabric, more time and hotter iron is required.
Following the recommendations stated in this article, each family is capable to reduce essentially electricity consumption, and without any damage for own household comfort. And saved on payment of accounts for an electricity it is possible to fill up with money other items of expenditure of the family budget – expenditure for education, visit of theaters and museums or resort rest.