With approach of the first frosts in news with an enviable regularity messages on failures on heating systems – then start to appear, there from under the earth hot fountains escape. All this leads to that inhabitants are compelled to be reserved by patience, expecting receipt of long-awaited heat in the houses. This situation already became habitual, and year from a year a situation in branch of a heat supply does not change almost.
As a rule, the heating season begins in Russia at the end of September, naturally, adjusted for a geographical position of each region. For example, in Moscow it on the average proceeds within 204 days, from September 29 to April 21 (by data for 1952-2010), and in Yekaterinburg – 220 days, from September 19 to April 26 (by data for 1960-2010). As a whole heat moves in houses if the daily average temperature on the street within five days in a row does not exceed +8°C.
So should be. But housing and communal services of the country meet every autumn with a traditional question of readiness of heating systems by the beginning of a heating season, and messages of news lines on threat of failure of planned start-up of heat in houses in this or that Russian region add fuel to the fire. Annual problems are caused by a condition of heating systems, their deterioration and breakdown rate.
Third trouble of Russia
The known saying, attributed that to Gogol, Nekrasov or Saltykovu-Schedrin, speaks about two most known Russian troubles. However presently there was also the third: catastrophic wear of the Russian heating systems which were created even in mass housing construction of 1960-1980 and since then never plainly were reconstructed. To be fair it is necessary to notice that it concerns practically all domestic municipal infrastructure which wear as of the 2011th exceeded 60 %. Thus about a quarter of fixed assets of housing and communal services settled the operational resource completely. Physical wear of actually thermal networks made at that time 62,8 %.
One more indicator characterizing the general condition of heating systems, – number of failures on them which over the last ten years increased more than six times. According to summary data on objects of a heat supply of 89 regions of the Russian Federation, the total extent of thermal networks in two-trumpet calculation makes more than 183 thousand km 28,5 % from which demand urgent replacement (i.e. nearly 105 thousand km of the main pipes are necessary to shift). The most disturbing situation developed in the North Caucasian federal district where 36,9 %, and also in Far East (33,2 %), in Uralsk (32,7 %) and Northwest (31,7 % are subject to replacement).
Thus during an economic crisis of 2008-2010 the volume of repair work on heating systems was reduced almost by a third. If in 2007 nearly 7 thousand km of heating systems, in 2009 – less than 5 thousand km were replaced and repaired. Figure simply ridiculous, considering the general extent of pipelines needing replacement. And in 2010 volumes of repair work decreased for 24-28 %. And it is worth to remember that every year, owing to natural wear, the extent of emergency pipelines grows. According to some experts, heating systems in Russia fail almost quicker, than are under repair.
«Besides long bezremontny operation of the Russian heating systems, their considerable wear has one more obvious reason which consists in the inefficient technology which have outdate from the engineering point of view of distribution of heat "bushes" through the central thermal points (TsTP)», – Anton Belov, the deputy director of thermal department of the Danfoss company, the largest global manufacturer of the power effective equipment for heating systems considers. According to the expert, distributive networks of rather small diameter on which heat moves on objects, and appear the weakest link in heat supply system.
Here list of the main shortcomings of the "sectional" scheme:
- TsTP automatic equipment traces the temperature schedule, as «average temperature on hospital». It can become the reason of considerable retops when the part of the buildings connected to TsTP, passed modernization, and the part is not present. Also similar effect is observed, if buildings are connected to TsTP with different temperature schedules, for example, school or kindergarten and a house;
- At the centralized regulation the considerable overexpenditure of energy for heating and hot water supply of residential and office buildings – from 19 to 32 % (on the average on the country about 25-27 %) is observed;
- Application of the technological scheme of open water analysis without heat exchangers in buildings leads to considerable reduction of the general service life and reduction of the between-repairs period of pipelines of thermal networks and the equipment of boiler rooms or combined heat and power plant (service life of pipelines is reduced till 10-12 years instead of 25-30 years);
- There are problems with the organization of the accounting of consumption of heat owners of buildings and the organization of the correct payment of consumption;
- There are problems with definition of losses of heat at transportation;
- The operating mode of thermal networks in transition periods is destabilized.
Taking into account wear of municipal infrastructure and need of carrying out repair work and reasonable introduction is logical during reconstruction of thermal networks of new technologies which will allow to eliminate shortcomings of the scheme of heating with TsTP use. However "inzhenerka" modernization – action expensive, thus to lead it gradually, fragmentary it will not turn out. Unlike «cosmetic works», one-stage investments enough impressive sums which are necessary for collecting still here are necessary.
Yes there will be light at the end of a tunnel
It is interesting that the history of a modern Russian heat supply began with attempts of introduction of technology of distribution of heat through the individual thermal points (ITP) established in buildings. And only in the 1950th years, from the beginning of mass housing construction in the USSR, TsTP, as the thermal and water points serving group of buildings started to appear. The reason of such decision is simple: it was necessary to cut down as much as possible expenses on creation of municipal infrastructure. But practice testifies that the similar approach that is called "backfired" on all municipal branch.
Audit of a condition of the domestic heat supply, carried out more than 30 years ago, showed that the scheme with ITP is much more effective than the scheme with TsTP, and not only from the point of view of economy of thermal energy, but also on capital investments and operational expenses. However absence those years in the USSR the equipment necessary for large-scale reconstruction (compact heat exchangers, quiet circulating pumps, devices of thermal automatic equipment and devices of the accounting of heat), and also (and in many respects) monopolism of some services regarding decision-making became an absolute obstacle in a modernization way. Behind an exception unless several demonstration objects. And we personally observe result now.
Especially strange the position of some specialists of municipal branch which and argue today as if the "sectional" system is effective and profitable is represented. If not to overcome this inertia now, full-scale accident of the Russian heat supply can become result.
If to approach to the question it is sensible, now actual mass transition from TsTP to ITP located in heated buildings is represented. This decision, besides increase of efficiency of distribution of heat, allows:
- Completely to refuse distributive networks of hot water supply as water for the GVS intra house systems will prepare in ITP heat exchangers. Thus, it is possible to pass in one stage from the four-trumpet scheme of connection of objects of a heat supply to two-trumpet, i.e. twice(!) to reduce extent of distributive networks. Respectively, also expenses on their laying and operation twice will decrease;
- Cardinally to reduce heat losses at the transportation which main part falls just to the share of distributive networks;
- To lower an electric power expense at the expense of shutdown of pumps on supply of household hot water and decrease in the capacity necessary for ensuring of circulation of the heat-carrier. The last is caused by that pumping of intra house systems will be carried out by pumps ITP.
«All listed fairly both for new construction, and for existing housing stock, just also is the share of a share of which networks of a heat supply the main part of emergency highways. Instead of TsTP reconstruction expedient complete refusal of them and transition to ITP today is. Together with a thermal insulation of buildings, installation of radiatorny temperature regulators and transfer of consumers on instrument (including pokvartirny) the accounting of heat, such decision allows to achieve 30-50 % of reduction of volumes of heatconsumption», – adds Anton Belov («Данфосс»).
Practice of use of ITP is widely applied to implementation of the concept of adjustable consumption of heat in the countries of Scandinavia which are close to Russia on the climatic conditions. It is indicative also that in the Scandinavian countries actively use centralized heat supply, and, including, and in sector of individual housing. And in Russia similar practice is applied today everything wider.
Generalizing practical results, it is possible to note that equipment of systems of a heat supply of ITP solves a number of problems, important both for branch as a whole, and for its concrete enterprises, and also end users of heat, including:
- Promotes decrease in an expense of fuel resources for needs of a heat supply that, in turn, allows to connect to already existing combined heat and power plants and boiler rooms more new houses. Besides, emission of hotbed gases and harmful substances in the atmosphere that conducts to improvement of an ecological situation in the cities is considerably reduced;
- Allows to create in buildings comfortable conditions for people;
- Allows to optimize an operating mode of thermal networks that conducts to increase of reliability of their functioning;
- Allows to pass from four-trumpet to two-trumpet intra quarter systems of delivery of heat that conducts to additional reduction of heatlosses and twice cuts operational costs of the heatsupplying organizations on their service;
- Allows to reduce sharply water preparation volumes in boiler rooms and by combined heat and power plant with reduction of a consumption of chemical reagents, and also energy on water deaeration (at the expense of AITP introduction with heat exchangers for GVS);
- Reduces electricity consumption by network pumps and increases their operational resource.
Thus, transition to the adjustable consumption realized on the scheme from ITP, will revitalize the general situation in branch and will allow to liberate the means which are so necessary today for full-scale reconstruction of the Russian heating systems. At last, the progressive technology of a heat supply will relieve housing and communal services of the annual problems connected with the beginning of a heating season, and, probably, will reconcile them with consumers at whom today is not present while any reasons to be happy with work of the domestic enterprises of the sphere of housing and communal services.