The agriculture in Russia is traditionally subsidized branch, and nearly 25 years of the Post-Soviet period here did not change anything. So, in 2013 the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation recognized as unsuitable for use ? territories of agricultural grounds страны1. In 2014 the government declared intention to direct on support of agrarian sector of 100 billion рублей2. In these conditions energy saving becomes one of key factors of development of all Russian agricultural branch. Even small farms can use the energy received from renewable sources and by that to increase the profitability.
Energy saving – in literal sense the engine of modern agriculture where it is directed first of all on increase of economic return from spent ресурсов3. Differently, the purpose in this case consists not in minimization of expenses of thermal or electric energy at the expense of reduction in production, and in reduction of volume of the resources necessary for release of unit of agricultural production.
It should be noted that the resursosberezheniye is defined by also legislative norms and state initiatives. So, introduction of new technologies in agricultural branch is forced by the national project «Development of an agrarian and production complex», accepted in 2006 году4. And since 2010 movement in this direction is defined by a state program «Energy saving and increase of power efficiency», economy extending on all branch.
As to market motives, the constant rise in prices for energy resources leads to increase of prime cost of agricultural production. And after Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization it does domestic producer less competitive against foreign поставщиков5. And the combination of circumstances in the market not always means equivalent replacement of a domestic production with delivered analogs. As the situation can turn back, now it is well visible on an example of production of milk. In recent years problems in the Russian dairy branch led to growth of import of the palm-oil used as substitute of dairy fat in products питания6. According to the deputy of the Samara provincial Duma Nikolay Somov if soon not to affect a situation, import of cheap substitute will finally drop demand for domestic milk, respectively, many productions will be compelled to be closed. And the consumer who cannot find in shops of dairy production without vegetative fats will lose first of all. The special alarm is caused by the growing volume of production by which production palm-oil, to put it mildly, not useful to health of the consumer is used.
If to speak about small (family) farms, a basis of saving-up actions is the economy of heat, in particular, fuels for boiler rooms, and the electric power. Certainly, the significant share of expenses of the similar enterprise is made also by combustive-lubricating materials, but their economy, finally, rests or in particular used technologies, or against need of replacement of park of maintained equipment. Intermediate measures here are reduced to appropriate service of units, about which average farmer and so has at least the general representations. Electro – and a heat supply allow to optimize essentially expenses without stopping production and complete rearmament of a farm that is especially actual in such spheres, as animal husbandry and plant growing in the closed soil (hothouse complexes).
Cattle-breeding farms, especially in a cold season, feel increased need for hot water, both for feeding of animals, and for carrying out necessary sanitary-and-hygienic procedures. Maintenance of a certain climate in a number of specialized rooms, for example, in places of the maintenance of young growth is also necessary. Some requirements are shown and to a place of placement of the main herd, especially in the winter. Though need for heat here it is essential below, it is.
Hothouse complexes need formation of constant climatic conditions, regardless of a season, and also in preparation of water of a certain temperature for watering. In the winter it means constant power consumption on heating and heating, and in the summer – on conditioning and cooling.
Similar agricultural productions are often located quite far from the main communications. It means that they experience difficulties with connection to the main lines of a heat supply or gas. Differently, for needs of heating and preparation of hot water they should build own boiler rooms, as the primary heat-carrier using firewood, diesel fuel and other quite expensive types of fuel that is reflected in prime cost of made production. The most available means of increase of power efficiency of the similar enterprises is partial transition to use of such renewables, as the sun and почва7.
To take «free heat» environment thermal pumps allow. «Units of any design will be suitable for equipment of agrarian and cattle-breeding objects: air or rassolno-water. For example, if on some farms there are cellars storages for vegetables, the air thermal pump, cooling storage, is capable to heat up at the same time the heat-carrier for heating or water for hot water supply of objects. It is similarly possible to use the fulfilled warm air of inhabited and administration premises or the warm water dumped by the enterprise (it is a question of the technological water applied to cooling within used productions)», – tells Andrey Osipov, the area manager «Thermal pumps» the Danfoss companies, leading global manufacturer of the energy saving equipment.
Use of thermal pumps in cattle-breeding farms where manure processing is already organized, for example, by means of bacteria as in this case the tank with raw materials can be used as a peculiar accumulator тепла8 is especially effective.
Calculations of payback of the decision for private houses show that installation of the thermal pump is favorable, if it is a question of long operation (terms till 50 years) in those areas where it is impossible to provide heating at the expense of the main gas or connection to the highway is more expensive 500 thousand rubles. Where rather cheaply it is possible to prepare firewood for the winter, heating at the expense of firm fuel often appears more favourably in terms of money, but is less practical from the point of view of operation: in wood or coal coppers it is necessary to throw fuel constantly. It is fair and for small farms. Only here "convenience" can be estimated financially: the man-hours liberated at the expense of automation of heating (lack of need constantly to be present at a boiler room), the farmer will direct on needs of the main production. Besides, in agriculture is admissible to use even those sources of geothermal energy which do not possess sufficient potential for house heating (as it was noted above, for some rooms high temperature even is not necessary in the winter) 9. It, along with possibility of introduction of cheaper decisions, promotes fast payback of the thermal pump.
«Usually agricultural, in particular, cattle-breeding, the enterprises occupy quite big areas allowing freely to place horizontal contours of the thermal pump. Such decisions, in comparison with other schemes, do not demand considerable initial expenses and can prove to be very effectively as the part of objects on a farm does not need maintenance of the same temperature that individual or apartment houses. For example, indoors for the maintenance of cattle or a bird it is possible to establish the thermal pump of rather small capacity, having combined it with heat-insulated hydraulic floors. Such option of heating is optimum for young growth cultivation», – Andrey Osipov explains.
It is important to note also that thermal pumps can satisfy needs of a farm not only for heating and preparation of hot water, but also in conditioning during the summer period. It is necessary, for example, for increase of mid-annual productivity in hothouses.
Energy of the sun
Transformation of a sunlight to an electricity at the moment – one of the most actively developing branches of alternative power in the world. By Olga Shepovalova’s estimates, к.т.н., the manager of laboratory of power supply of rural buildings, country and GNU farms VIESH Rosselkhozakademy, by 2030 volume of production of solar energy in the world should grow in 60 times (concerning level of 2004), and development is warm on solar thermal installations – in 10 times. «The agrarian sector possesses the greatest potential for disclosure of advantages of renewables at the simultaneous solution of the most acute problems of rural power supply», – notes специалист10.
Use of energy of the sun allows to be insured from interruptions typical for the Russian village in power supply which can quite lead to non-recoverable losses (to equipment breakage, etc.). Especially such sources are actual in remote regions (the region of the Far North, the Far East and Siberia) where because of difficulties with fuel delivery electric power cost repeatedly exceeds tariffs in Central federal округе11. Besides, the solar power station allows to smooth peak loads of a power supply system, giving capacity while it is necessary.
«In the European countries the agriculture branch widely applies solar batteries, including – the farmer enterprises establish panels on roofs of the constructions. Additional motive is possibility to use the big areas of roofs of agricultural constructions under the solar – power plants. The electric power developed by them is on sale to energy companies that allows to receive essential additional earnings. Unfortunately, in Russia today the similar mechanism is not present, therefore economically it is not so favorable, as in Europe. But the decision will pay off in case connection to electric networks in the farm location very expensive (or simply is absent) or the supplying organization technically cannot provide the demanded capacity. Differently, at us the solar power solves a problem of independent power supply», – Pavel Fedotov, the manager on work with key clients of department of power electronics of the Danfoss company makes comments.
What will be farther?
Agriculture – branch quite conservative. The majority of businessmen prefer not to experiment new technologies while they will be not not tested by neighbors. As extension of terms of operation of old equipment and low monetary inquiries on the village allow while to hold still a price level on production at competitive level, even despite Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and predicted changes in the market. Whether it is so necessary to hurry with power efficiency?
While our country only catches up with world norms on expenses of energy of non-renewable sources on production of food, the farm of the developed countries goes further, trying to be released completely from the power of tariffs for fossil resources, so, to solve the problems with the prices and volume of production.
As it was noted in the report of the Food and agricultural organization United Nations (FAO):« There is a reasonable reason for concern that the current dependence of food sector on organic fuel can limit ability of sector to satisfy world demand for the food. The main objective consists in division of the prices into the food from the volatilny and growing prices for organic fuel. Use of local renewable energy resources on all production chain will help to improve access to energy, to diversify the income of farmers and the processing industry, to minimize a food waste, to reduce dependence on organic fuel and emissions of hotbed gases and to help to reach the purposes of a sustainable development. Where there are good solar, wind, water and geothermal resources and energy of a biomass, they can be used alternatively to organic fuel in a farm and an aquaculture. They are also applicable in storage and processing »12. For the Russian landowners the main thing – not to appear once in outsiders of the world industry.
Renewables open before agriculture possibility to optimize the operating expenses, having lowered in product cost a share of energy resources. During an era of economic instability and constantly growing prices for energy resources it can become good competitive advantage.