Despite existence in the cities of a central heating, heating of housing is a sore point for the majority of inhabitants of apartment houses. That it is necessary to freeze in inter-season period, on the contrary, to hold window leaves constantly open and actually to heat the street because of surplus of heat in the winter. Alas, realities of the Russian system of collective giving of heat by a principle «all equally and in strictly allowed time» are that. However today technical solutions which will help not only to increase essentially comfort of residence in the apartment are available to the owner of housing, but also to save the means spent for its heating.
We choose heating devices
For the majority of Russians habitual elements of an interior of the city apartment are habitual pig-iron radiators or a modest look the lamellar convectors sometimes covered with a modest casing. The main lack of these heating devices – low efficiency. Pig-iron radiators possess high inertia, that is very long heat up and cool down, and standard convectors have the small area of heatreturn that is especially strongly felt in chilly inter-season period. And if you plan repair, that time to think about replacement of standard heating devices by more modern.
For example, on the widely adopted section bimetallic radiators possessing low inertia, having good heatreturn and solid convective составляющую1, convenient in installation and thus rather inexpensive.
Also steel tubular radiators recently were extended. On the design they remind pig-iron batteries or represent a freakish artful design of tubes if it is a question of design execution. The main advantage of these heating devices – in very low inertia as stainless steel of which them do, heats up and cools down almost instantly. Besides, tubular radiators – integral as actually it is one pipe "twisted" definitely. Thus, probability of leakages because of violation of tightness of connections between radiator elements comes to naught to naught.
At the same time it is necessary to remember, what not all heating devices are calculated on application in apartment houses. In particular it concerns panel radiators of import production. «For the Russian systems of a heat supply the raised level of pressure in pipelines is characteristic, not without reason their opressovka (control test) carry out at pressure to the 25th bar. Therefore radiators and all locking regulating fittings should be certificated for operation in our country in systems of a central heating, – Anton Belov, the deputy director of thermal department of the Danfoss company, leading global manufacturer of the energy saving equipment explains. – Also it is necessary to observe the provided design thermal capacity of heating devices for your apartment. That there were no "slips", before purchase of the equipment and the beginning of works it is necessary to coordinate the project in management company».
Making replacement of radiators, it is necessary to reflect and on equipment by their means of regulation to get rid of a problem of a peretaplivaniye and to have an opportunity to operate temperature in rooms at discretion. Will provide its automatic radiatorny temperature regulators which run into a pipe submitting hot water to the heating device. Rotating the handle with divisions, it is possible to choose demanded value of air temperature indoors in the established limits, and subsequently the device will automatically maintain this temperature while control will not change. Many European producers adjusted long ago release of heating radiators with already built in temperature regulators, and in recent years even more often follow this example and the Russian companies, for example, SANTEKHPROM plant.
According to many experts, at a choice of a radiatorny temperature regulator it is necessary to give preference to devices with the gas-filled sensor as they possess record-breaking short – no more than 8 minutes – time of reaction for air temperature change indoors on 1°C. Temperature regulators with liquid sensors essentially "more slowly" (about 20 minutes), and with solid-state (paraffin) – in general are of little use for housing as "are shaken" from 40 minutes to hour and more.
Gradually win the market and even more "advanced" electronic temperature regulators, for example Living Eco allowing not simply to support any value of temperature, but also to program its change in time.
At existence in the house of the pokvartirny accounting of heat (which should become obligatory already in the short term) radiatorny temperature regulators not only provide temperature comfort, but also give the essential – to 15-20 % – additional economy on payments for heating.
Additional source of heat
Unfortunately, to the city apartment it is not always rather warm, a central heating arriving from radiators, let even the most modern and equipped with regulating devices. After all to receive it is more than heat, than gives a heating system, it is impossible in principle: if pipes cold to twist the adjusting handle it is useless. Especially it is felt in inter-season period and during the periods of summer cold snaps when the central heating does not work in general. Besides, some simply love, that in rooms was warmer, and others in the house had a small child for whom according to medical indications it is necessary to maintain temperature some air not below 24-26 degrees. On all these cases it is necessary to provide existence of alternative sources of heat.
Good way to warm a room without the aid of a central heating – a heat-insulated floor. This source of heat by right is considered one of the most comfortable for the person as the temperature at level of feet appears on 1-2 degrees above temperature at head level. Similar distribution is optimum from the point of view of physiology, besides, there is no false feeling of cold in feet. Thus uniform distribution of heat is promoted indoors by natural convection – the air which has been heated up by a floor, gradually rises up, releasing a place for new, not a warm portion. One more important advantage before a heating radiator is that the heat-insulated floor occupies all space of a room, instead of a niche under a window sill. Thus, it is capable to warm up even the most secluded corners. At last, unlike many other types of heaters, the heat-insulated floor is absolutely safe for children, after all its heating elements are reliably latent and direct contact to them is impossible.
However, not any heat-insulated floor will be suitable for the city apartment. So to arrange water heating of a floor it is better to refuse idea, as it is fraught with serious problems. First, owners of apartments in principle have no right to make change in system of heating of an apartment house (transfer or replacement of radiators, but no more than that is allowed). Secondly, the water heat-insulated floor can quite deprive of heat of your neighbors as the heating system does not assume connection of additional loadings, and then an official penalty not to avoid. At last, if because of гидроудара2 in system of heating or hot water supply in a heat-insulated floor the leakage (after all connections of pipes of such floor are calculated on pressure, in only 1,5 times the exceeding working – the 6th bar, and for system of heating hydroblows with pressure to the 25th bar are not excluded) is found, the first about it your neighbors also learn.
Thus, the water heat-insulated floor is the decision focused on the private house with independent system of heating. For the city apartment on expenses and simplicity of installation the electric heating will be optimum.
In the range of the largest producers of electric heat-insulated floors there are decisions practically for any rooms and types of floor coverings: tile, parquet and laminate, linoleum, tree, carpet. To provide the greatest comfort in the apartment existence of a large number of settings allows. For example, the intellectual control system of heat-insulated floors of DEVI allows to choose and combine a set of modes of heating, to supervise temperature both the floor, and air in warmed space. For example, it is possible to establish restrictions on heating for floors with various types of coverings, to optimize a heating mode, choosing the built-in programs for various types of rooms, to program system work by means of the built-in timer and many other things.
For some reason it is considered to be that the electric heat-insulated floor essentially increases the account for the electric power. However use of the intellectual decisions similar described above, allows to minimize additional expenses.
Measurements show that when using a temperature regulator of Devireg (production DEVI) the floor is disconnected approximately for 40 % of time of its use. According to calculations, the average capacity of a heat-insulated floor necessary for maintenance of comfortable temperature in the city apartment in a heating season, makes 120-180 W/sq.m. Taking into account temperature regulator use in a month such floor consumes 50-75 КВт*ч the electric power. At cost of 2,81 rub/KW (a tariff for the electric power for January 1, 2013 for Moscow) monthly costs of square meter of included constantly heat-insulated floor will make 140-210 rubles. Considering recommendations about a space of a heating cable from stationary furniture and walls on 10-15 cm, in the average 1-roomed apartment can be enough 5-6 sq.m with heating (placed in kitchen, in a bathroom and in the central zone of a room) that at continuous inclusion "will pour out" in 700-1200 rubles a month.
For comparison, the central heating of such apartment costs about 1000-1400 rubles a month. If to consider that the central heating works only during a heating season, but payment for it breaks for all year, the actual monthly cost of service in a heating season will be twice more and will make about 2-3 thousand rubles. The difference is available.
By the way, efficiency of a heat-insulated floor of the mentioned area much more exceeds efficiency habitual much oil electroheater. If only one such device in capacity of 2 KW to hold included the whole month, expenses on its power supply will appear four times higher, than on a food of a heat-insulated floor. And this with the fact that the oil radiator is capable to warm only one of apartment rooms.
Heat-insulated floor of DEVI with an intellectual control system
One oil radiator
About 4000 rub/months.
The only thing what it is necessary to remember – excessive economy on quality of used decisions usually good does not come to an end with anything. «As it is a question of the equipment which is mounted under the main floor covering, it is better to address to the checked suppliers and producers that it was not necessary to dismantle several times a floor and to remove a cable if the malfunction suddenly is found, neither in 2 years, nor in 10 years», – Alexey Tereshin, the area manager of DEVI of the Danfoss company summarizes.
Though the organization of system warm while in the city apartment seems the difficult and expensive action, over time the invested money will come back at the expense of more rational use of heat, and wasted time and forces will turn back desired comfort.