All know that it is warmly necessary to save and it is favorable. But very few people understands how to do it in practice, in a real house. However sooner or later such knowledge will be useful to all owners as they should make the decision on structure of major maintenance.
First of all, it is necessary to understand, from where heat arrives in the house and where it is spent, what expense is useful and what — parasitic, i.e. to separate useful heat for which we are ready to pay, from heatlosses which are necessary for liquidating. Traditional in the past for Russia the scheme of a heat supply of an apartment house was far from an ideal. Here its main shortcomings:
1. Needs for heat at all different: someone feels comfortably at +21°C, and it is necessary for someone +26°C. However regulate heatconsumption according to the preferences residents cannot.
2, Useful for which owners really should pay, is only the part of thermal energy received by them. The system works so that to exclude complaints to underheating, the others escape from retops, opening window leaves. Those surpluses of heat which thus dissipate in the atmosphere, and also heatlosses through walls, the base and a roof — it is the money thrown out on a wind.
3. The quantity of heat submitted to the house is regulated by the out-of-date standards which are not considering a real condition of buildings and thermal networks, their wear.
4. In many cases, especially if the house old, exists a real problem of heatlosses: through the cold walls, badly warmed cellars and a roof, old wooden windows. Certainly, heatlosses through protecting designs do not belong directly to number of the problems connected with a heat supply, finally they is so critical other factors affect efficiency of use of heat, as well as.
5. There is also one more problem which at superficial studying of a question is not so obvious, but is nevertheless very significant: this non-uniform distribution of heat on the house. It speaks that hydraulic resistance of system of heating grows in process of removal from thermal input therefore distant struts from it get warm worse, and near — is excessive. If work of system is adjusted on averages for the house to parameters, it will turn out that someone spends warmly for nothing, disseminating it through window leaves, and someone at the same time freezes.
6. At all listed problems owners pay for heat, proceeding only from the area of the apartments irrespective of, how many it is really warm them it is necessary and how many they consume it.
«Many wrongly believe that, having warmed the house and having got rid thus of parasitic heatlosses, they can save heat. However it not so because leaks will outside be reduced, but giving is warm in the house and to apartments remains former. Thus, without regulation of giving it is possible to create only in some apartments additional temperature discomfort» — Anton Belov, the deputy director of department of thermal automatic equipment of the Danfoss company, leading global manufacturer of the energy saving equipment explains.
To limit heat consumption by the quantity, to really necessary inhabitants of the house, and to give the chance to each owner to regulate this quantity at level of the apartment, the singular technical solutions realized or at construction of the house, or in the course of major maintenance are necessary:
1. First of all — this regulation on the house as a whole, for example, depending on change of weather conditions or from time of day. Such regulation is carried out by automatic equipment of individual thermal point on the basis of air temperature change on the street.
2. To solve a problem of non-uniform giving of the heat-carrier in raznoudalenny struts from thermal input, special devices — automatic balancing valves are used. They are established on each strut after installation of thermal point and level amount of hot water, so, and is warm, arriving in these struts. Thus, all receive heating service in identical volume and there is no overexpenditure.
3. At last, everyone can establish comfortable air temperature for itself(himself) in rooms, using automatic radiatorny temperature regulators, after all at all different preferences. And if thus also to pass to the pokvartirny accounting of heat, and to pay at the end of the month the residents consuming its different quantity, will be differently. It is not simply fair, but also induces to even bigger economy. For example, leaving on giving, it is possible to limit air temperature in the apartment 14°C.
The unique problem there is an organization of really fair pokvartirny accounting of heat when everyone pays only that consumed itself. The matter is that to establish individual heat meters in apartments it is possible only if each of them has the unique thermal input from the general strut, as a rule, located in the general hall, and all heating devices are connected to this input in the apartment. On input the heat meter also is established. It is called as poetazhny horizontal distributing of system of heating. Unfortunately, in Russia of houses with such distributing was not under construction practically in general earlier, and now — it is not enough, at most 20 %, and generally this so-called "elite" housing.
In the majority of domestic standard panel high-rise buildings vertical stoyakovy distributing of system of heating is realized. As it is arranged, all well know: struts penetrate the house directly through rooms, and the heating device is connected to everyone. Such scheme needs essentially other decision, and it exists.
On each radiator the radiatorny distributor measuring heatreturn of the heating device fastens. Knowing capacity of each of them (it is defined by the house project) and the general consumption in a month, it is possible according to the data arriving from distributors, to calculate a share of each radiator in all-house consumption. Having pro-summarized pokvartirno, we will receive individual consumption of each owner in a month.
The equipment can automatically work. For example, the system of the pokvartirny accounting of heat of Danfoss INDIV AMR collects indications from distributors on a radio channel on floor and access concentrators, and then transfers them on the Internet in a financial settlements center where accounts for heat are automatically formed.
To pass to such form of the account it is impossible in an individual order as to establish radiatorny distributors owe not less than a half of residents. Similar decisions demand discussion at general meeting and can be realized just during major maintenance, together with modernization of system of heating.
Having necessary knowledge, owners can make the correct decision on structure of major maintenance and receive real economy of heat and money. Besides, each of them, thanks to automatic equipment established in the house, radiatorny temperature regulators and distributors, will have a possibility to pay only for the personal consumption and to save it is even more.