Expenses on heating and the maintenance of the private house or cottage can reach several tens of thousands rubles a year. And because of rise in price of energy resources this sum annually grows. Spreading for heat, an electricity and the other benefits of a civilization a considerable part of the family budget, it is difficult to believe that these expenditure quite really to reduce several times.
European recipes of economy
When speech about reduction of charges of buildings comes, it is accepted to remember a wide experience of countries of Western Europe. Really, at the European Union is to that to learn in this plan, after all there already apartment and individual houses which consume till 15-20 time less thermal energy, than typical Russian cottages in large quantities are under construction. Such constructions received the name «passive houses» (German «рassivhaus» or English «passive house») which emphasizes that they do not render negative influence on environment.
«According to norms of the European Union, since 2020 all countries entering into commonwealth, should erect only the houses corresponding to principles of passive house, – Wolfgang Fayst, the director of Institute of the Passive house, Darmstadt, Germany explains. – These are power effective buildings for which the specific expense of heat on heating makes no more than 15 kWh/m? in a year».
Application of alternative power sources – thermal pumps, solar batteries and vetrogenerator – allows to make such house completely independent of foreign suppliers of an electricity and energy resources. That is houses with zero expenditure for heating (zero energy house) turn out! Moreover, in the European countries they even allow the owners to earn, selling surpluses of an electricity in municipal power supply networks.
Sounds fantastically? However technologies available in our market, materials and the equipment already now allow to build such houses. Denis Tchernyaev, the director general of the architectural company «Ideale Atmosphere» on an example of the dwelling proved that the energy saving house really erect and in Russia, and it will save means of the house owner: «For myself I constructed a cottage where from communications the electricity is connected only, and for heating of the house and preparation of hot water the thermal pump is used. The account for utilities in a month makes 1500 rubles whereas owners of the same house with traditional heating would pay to ten times more!»
Denis Tchernyaev («Ideale Atmosphere») especially emphasizes that a basis of the concept of the energy saving house are modern decisions for increase of a heat-shielding of protecting designs: base, external walls, windows and roof. The era of energy saving houses began with mass introduction of energy saving technologies of construction and modern heatinsulating materials in Europe.
For example, for decrease in heatlosses through the building base at its device it is possible to use a fixed timbering from expanded polystyrene. By different estimates, this measure reduces heat expense the house not less than for 15 %.
And multilayered front systems should be applied to warming of external walls. According to Roman Ryazantsev, the project manager of the CAPAROL company, the expert in the field of a thermal insulation of facades of buildings, they at the same time improve a microclimate indoors, protect bearing designs from differences of temperatures and moistening, reduce heatlosses and carry out decorative functions. In such systems the problem of increase of thermoresistance of a wall is assigned to highly effective heatinsulating materials, such as mineral cotton wool or expanded polystyrene.
And according to the European requirements for passive house thermoresistance of external walls should be not less than 7,7 m? * °C/W. To reach such indicators, it is necessary to use a layer of a heatinsulating material in thickness not less than 25-30 see. For comparison: it agrees to requirements existing in Russia Construction Norms and Regulations 23-02-2003, depending on climatic conditions the heater layer in thickness from 5 to 15 is applied see.
One of the most known technologies of external furnish of facades is the plaster system of warming. It is called so because the plates of a heatinsulating material adjacent to an external wall of a building, are covered from external influences by reinforcing structure with a steklotkanevy grid and a protective and decorative plaster layer. High level of heattechnical uniformity of external walls and a building is as a result reached as if puts on in a warm cocoon.
«It is possible to call this technology with good reason universal. After all it is suitable for use practically in any climatic zone and for buildings of any appointment. So it is not so casual its steel so widely to use for construction of power effective houses, – Roman Ryazantsev (CAPAROL) speaks. – Facades of «passive houses» are not obliged to be not so boring and monotonous. Such plaster systems as CAPATECT (Caparol), not only provide high level of a heat-shielding of a building, but also provide to architects and designers the most ample design opportunities. A huge variety of color scores and combinations of plaster to other finishing materials (a tree, a natural stone, decorative panels) allow to embody any plan and to make each house unique. Even if the private house initially was not designed as energy saving, by means of installation of a plaster facade it is possible to reduce need of a building for heat by 30-40 % ».
Besides walls the roof needs a qualitative thermal insulation also. Evgeny Lazukin, the head of the department of sales of water waste and roofing systems of Group of companies Metal the Profile, the leading producer of roofing and front systems in Russia, in this regard speaks: «At a difficult form of a roof its total area can exceed the area of a facade of a building. As result, roof heatlosses negatively affect the general energy balance of the house. And it is very important to achieve not simply high-quality warming of slopes of a roof without education of «cold bridges», but also to provide protection of a heatinsulating material against a namokaniye».
For the buildings corresponding to the European standards of power efficiency, also are extremely important and heatsaving-up characteristics of svetoprozrachny designs. After all heat losses through shabby and blown windows are capable to nullify all efforts on a house thermal insulation.
As much as possible fully to use a daylight, the glazing area of «passive houses» often it is considerably increased and can make 40-50 % of the area of a facade. For reduction of losses of heat in such buildings windows with the improved heatsaving-up characteristics, collected of multichamber PVC profiles and tight two – and three-chambered double-glazed windows with argon filling are used. Often in them glasses with the low-issue covering detaining thermal radiation are applied. However, installation of such windows even in the usual house without claims for power efficiency leads to impressing results – this measure allows to reduce at once house heatlosses by 20-30 % ».
System economy of energy resources
The all-round thermal insulation, certainly, very positively affects thermal balance of the house. But radical reduction of consumption of energy can achieve only at a comprehensive approach to energy saving. First of all engineering networks of a building – heating and ventilation systems are mentioned.
So, installation of a modern heating copper with automatic control of capacity depending on weather and need of the house for heat allows to save 15-20 % of fuel. If the kondensatsionny copper which can use warmly fulfilled oven gases is chosen, it is possible to count on additional economy in 10-20 %. Besides, the important role is played also by optimum distribution of heat on the house.
«To heat all house often there is no need. The part of rooms can be empty or used very seldom. Therefore for economy of energy it is very important to regulate heat giving in each concrete room, – Mikhail Shapiro, the director general of the Russian division of the Danfoss company considers. – It is possible to do it by means of automatic thermostats which are mounted on devices of heating and maintain the set temperature». According to experts, these inexpensive devices established in each room, help to reduce fuel expenses to 40-60 %.
Evgeny Sokolovsky, the specialist of the TGSV Group of companies which is engaged in introduction of highly effective climatic systems, alternatively to water systems of a heat supply of the house suggests to use direct air heating. In this case heating of rooms is carried out by the warm air extended on a networks of air lines. Thanks to small thermal inertia such system spends for 20-40 % less fuel, than traditional, and therefore is quite often added to the arsenal by designers of «passive houses». Even more to increase its efficiency systems of a rekuperatsiya of heat help. In such units the fresh air arriving from the street, heats up at the expense of the fulfilled. Because of it heatlosses at ventilation of the house decrease in 4-5 times.
It is not out of place to mention also about all-round economy of the electric power which is certainly familiar to us in its separate manifestations. But only in the concept of «the passive house» it accepted complex character.
«All measures for economy already became quite banal – use of economic light-emitting diode lighting, household appliances of a class A and above, motion sensors and volume which automatically turn on the light at appearance of the person indoors», – Nikolay Kemerov, the sales manager of the company Ekoel of Group explains.
If the heating and climatic equipment, and also all lighting is incorporated in a uniform network by means of systems «clever house», there are possibilities for flexible management of consumption of all energy in a building. So the house owner receives complete control over engineering systems of the house and expenses on its operation.
No, reasons not to save
«According to our researches, «the passive house» can be constructed literally in any Russian region, up to the region of the Far North where the temperature reaches – 30°С and below», – Wolfgang Fayst, the director of Institute of the Passive house speaks.
And such houses already appear at us. The first certificated «the passive house» in Russia is erected in Moscow area by the Mosstroy-31 company. In a cottage in total area of 246 sq.m heaters expanded polystyrene and a neotime in thickness to 15-30 cm, and also hi-tech engineering systems were used. Prime cost without furnish made 24 thousand roubles for sq.m, and a specific expense of thermal energy on heating – 24 кВт*ч on m? in a year that is close to the European standards of energy saving houses.
In the Russian market today there is all arsenal of energy saving technologies for creation of «the passive house». Any house owner with average prosperity can warm the house by means of plaster systems, establish plastic windows, a copper with automatic control, etc. At the same time complex application of such decisions restrains weak understanding of interrelation of initial expenditure for arrangement of the house house-keeper and future benefits. However, growing tariffs already bring the contribution in energy saving promoting. In process of acquaintance on a personal experience with advantages of «passive houses» the number of supporters of complex economy of energy and own means will increase only.