Today one of the most important criteria of purchase of housing in an apartment house is existence in it pokvartirny heating: according to sociologists, this criterion is on the second place after a house site, advancing such important indicators, as the price, planning and construction materials.
It is known that the expense of heat and water on one inhabitant of Russia exceeds the European norms in 2,5–3 times. Thus traditional systems of the central heat supply have a set of problems and cannot provide to inhabitants necessary level of comfort. The most widespread problems are interruptions in giving of heat and low temperature of the heat-carrier, frequent shutdowns or total absence of hot water supply, creeping growth of tariffs for services etc. Important and that wear of thermal networks in the country makes 60–80 %, wear of the equipment of TsTP and boiler rooms – about 70 %; heat losses on a way from the producer to the consumer reach 40–50 %.
For experts becomes more and more obvious that in the circumstances one of the most effective and perspective exits is transition to an independent heat supply. Thus the most economically effective type of an independent heat supply the pokvartirny heat supply (heating) admits.
The system of a pokvartirny heat supply represents a mini-boiler room established in each apartment with possibility of the individual accounting of consumed resources and management of a temperature mode. The heating copper, heating devices, systems of supply of air and a dymoudaleniye belong to basic elements of pokvartirny heating. The most available option of pokvartirny heating is the heat supply with use as a power source of natural gas.
Advantage of pokvartirny heating which became standard in Europe and Asia, already could estimate in many cities of Russia.
The State Committee for Construction of Russia since 1999 makes experiment on construction and operation of multi-storey buildings with pokvartirny heating. Houses with similar system of a heat supply are built in Smolensk, Serpukhov, Bryansk, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Kaliningrad, Nizhny Novgorod. Wall coppers with the open chamber are widely applied in commercial construction in Kazan, Voronezh, Ryazan, Samara, Astrakhan, Neftekamsk, Stavropol, Novorossiysk and many other cities. There is an operating experience and in the northern districts of Syktyvkar.
Within State Committee for Construction experiment comfort of life in houses with a pokvartirny heat supply sharply raised, the problem of seasonal interruptions in giving of heat and hot water disappeared, inhabitants had a real incentive to energy saving. Emergence in 2004 of the long-awaited statutory act regulating design, construction and operation of pokvartirny systems of a heat supply became important result of experiment. The Set of rules on design and construction of the joint venture 41–108–2004, approved by the State Committee for Construction of the Russian Federation became them. At the same time in a number of regions the territorial construction norms (TSN) which have legalized a pokvartirny heat supply on places began to operate.
Every day the geography of pokvartirny heating extends. It means that pokvartirny heating in Russia proved the efficiency and has wide prospects in the solution of problems of housing and communal services.
The most important advantages of pokvartirny heating treat:
- possibility to reach the maximum thermal comfort the Consumer himself determines level of own providing by heat and hot water; the problem of interruptions in heat and hot water for the technical, organizational and seasonal reasons acts in film.
- repeated decrease in expenses for consumer Pokvartirnoye a heat supply allows to receive economy of gas for 30-40 %.
- considerable reduction of the cost of housing construction Disappears need for expensive heating systems, thermal points, devices of the accounting of thermal energy; becomes possible to conduct housing construction in the city areas which have not been provided with developed infrastructure of thermal networks (under condition of reliable gas supply); the problem of payback of system of heating since repayment of cost occurs at the moment of housing purchase acts in film.
- environmental friendliness Use of coppers with the closed chamber of combustion allows to have a ventilation problem rooms, guaranteeing the correct amount of air for burning. In such coppers air for burning is compulsorily sucked in by the built-in fan from environment and there combustion products jump out. Faltering kind of work of a copper facilitates dispersion of products of combustion in air. In a normal mode coppers with the closed chamber of combustion and compulsory draft allocate combustion products with contents level WITH (carbon oxide) within 80-110 p.p.m., that satisfies to the European standards.
Ensuring reliable and safe branch of products of combustion in system of pokvartirny heating – one of the main and major objectives at design and implementation of data of systems.