Any, even the most reliable engineering systems of country houses need over time modernization. As shows experiment, it is frequent during the planning and carrying out repair work house owners commit the same mistakes. Experts told about most widespread of them, and how it is correct to operate in different situations.
Mistake No. 1. To postpone copper replacement
The most expensive element of system of heating – a copper. Because of the high price house owners do not hurry with its replacement. However to continue to use the device after the termination of the service life specified in documentation (10-15 years for hinged products and 18-20 for floor), are impossible.
«In practice the durability of a copper depends on conditions of its operation and a maintenance regularity, – Nikita Panov, the technician of the JSC Komfortny dom company specializing on sale, installation and equipment service for engineering systems of private houses explains. – In cottages of construction of the 1980-90th the heating coppers made still in Soviet period still work. The similar equipment deserved good reputation reliable, but has also a number of shortcomings, in particular, low efficiency. Moreover, in case of breakages to out-of-date coppers it is difficult to find spare parts. Devices with electronic control are much more effective, safe and convenient in operation».
Even if the copper yet did not create any problems, it is necessary to replace it for economy reasons. Modern models are capable to change smoothly thermal capacity depending on need of the house for heat, thus the consumption of gas is reduced by 15-20 %. Such effect is reached by use of modulating gas valves with electronic control systems.
The additional savings of resources and, as a result, finance can be received if to use coppers with kondensatsionny technology: it helps to utilize warmly fulfilled oven gases which usually simply jump out a flue. In the coldest weeks of winter the similar decision allows to reduce gas consumption by 30 %.
As it is correct to choose a copper
Dmitry Lebedev, the technical director of the company of JSC Sistemy dlya doma, rendering complex services in design, installation and service of engineering systems of country houses: – Для отопления стандартного дома площадью 100-200 кв. м. я рекомендую устанавливать настенный двухконтурный котёл мощностью до 35 кВт. Такой агрегат, как правило, не нуждается в отдельном помещении, его монтируют прямо на кухне. Выбор в пользу напольного котла мощностью от 50 кВт и выше стоит сделать, если дом большой площади (более 300 кв. м), в нём предусмотрены «тёплые полы», есть потребность в горячей воде или если используются дополнительные источники тепла – солнечные коллекторы, тепловые насосы и т.п. Правда, такой мощный отопительный котёл придётся разместить в отдельном помещении – котельной с хорошей вентиляцией.
Ошибка №2. Делать всё самостоятельно At the Internet forums devoted to private construction, owners of houses quite often ask questions of installation and adjustment of a gas copper. But it is worth to remember that any discrepancy at work is fraught with consequences. For this reason experts with the corresponding license should carry out installation, balancing and commissioning and service of gas coppers only.
By the way, the same belongs and to attempts with own hand to execute trumpet distributing on the house. «The expert approach means drawing up and coordination with the client of the project of system of heating with the corresponding heattechnical and hydraulic calculations. Owners of houses in the area to 200 sq.m seldom resort to similar services and as a result receive mistakes at installation – up to the mixed pipes of giving and an obratka, – Dmitry Lebedev («Notes systems for the house»). – It is important to make not simply competently work, but also it is correct to adjust system, considering a set of technical subtleties. Specialists of our company surely check each handed-over object in a heating season – whether everything works, whether the temperature mode is maintained, whether additional control» is necessary.
Mistake No. 3. To refuse pumps
Modern coppers besides automatic equipment, systems of safety and a broad tank, are equipped with the built-in circulating pump by means of which the heat-carrier circulates via the heat exchanger of a copper and radiators. In the majority of qualitative coppers the pumps of the GRUNDFOS company having a ceramic shaft that does the equipment to more reliable in comparison with other analogs presented in the market are used. Especially this difference is shown in systems where the heat-carrier "is not ideal" and in it parts of a scum, a rust and other inclusions can come across.
Considering all aforesaid, at the house owner not possessing engineering knowledge it can be made impression that the completed copper of heating is rather simple for including in system, and it will work without problems. It is true for individual system of heating in the apartment, but at a cottage heat supply the equipment built in a copper sometimes cannot provide pumping of all volume of the heat-carrier through all system of heating of the private house. For this reason in most cases not to do without the additional external circulating pump.
«If in system of heating automatic control of temperature indoors is provided by means of temperature regulators, it is recommended to establish the pumps ALPHA2 which thanks to the AUTOadapt mode choose an optimum operating mode and correct it in process of change of requirements of system. For example, if the copper passes to an economic mode with the lowered temperature of the heat-carrier, the pump registers change of temperature of the heat-carrier and thanks to function «a night mode» frequency of rotation of the engine automatically decreases to necessary size, – Ekaterina Semyonova, the engineer of Department of the household equipment of the GRUNDFOS company, leading global manufacturer of pumps tells. – Intellectual frequency regulation and the thought-over design of a rotor do the pump very economic – in a year it consumes only 44 kW · h whereas standard pumps "spend" to 350 kW · h/year. Besides, pumps of the ALPHA2 series do not demand maintenance and differ small dimensions».
It is important
The admissible total volume stream through a heating copper can make at most 1000 l/hours. If settlement value appeared more, the copper is connected to a heating contour through a hydraulic arrow (a hydraulic divider). This inexpensive device excludes interference between a contour of a copper and heating contours. The copper always works in an optimum mode that considerably prolongs term of its service and excludes scum loss on heat exchangers.
Ошибка №4. Улучшать самотёчную систему In some country houses it meets still and maintained gravitational (or samotyochny) heating system. The heat-carrier in it circulates naturally (at the expense of different density of hot and cold water) therefore it does not need the pump, and is therefore independent of power supply. On it pluses of gravitational system are settled. Minuses following: an inefficiency, impossibility of regulation, use of expensive pipes of big diameter for distributing.
Sometimes house owners consider that for elimination of all shortcomings it is necessary to establish the circulating pump in samotyochny system. However everything is not so simple. «In our practice there were cases when clients forced to mount the pump in the return pipeline before a copper. It was necessary to explain that such system, at all its minuses, саморегулируема – in it speed of circulation depends on needs of the house for heat, – Dmitry Lebedev («Tells systems for the house»). – If to establish the pump, without having brought in system of additional changes, it will be completely debalanced, and one rooms will receive excessive quantity of heat, and others will freeze at the same time».
Mistake No. 5. To save on pipes
The vast majority of systems of heating of houses of the 1990th is executed on traditional steel pipes (PVC then was considered as exotic). It is quite natural that for last 15-20 years metal коррозировал, and today distributing needs replacement. A mistake from the owner will be guided by the price, instead of to start with requirements of the house.
«The cheapest and simple distributing – one-trumpet when the heat-carrier is consistently pumped over through all radiators in the house. We do not recommend such scheme as it is most of all subject to a razregulirovaniye. In an ideal, at each radiator the regulator which defines should be put, how many the heat-carrier to start up in a radiator, and how many – in contour. So simplicity and profitability of one-trumpet distributing is strongly overestimated, – Dmitry Lebedev («Systems for the house») imparts experience. – As standard option the horizontal two-trumpet system with use of polipropilenovy pipes is used. On floors there is the main strut, and from it – distributing on rooms to radiators».
If over 300 sq.m where it is planned to use "heat-insulated floors" or additional automatic equipment (for example, system «clever house») are a question of the big house in the area, the fan system where from poetazhny collectors the hidden distributing by pipes from the sewed polyethylene or a metallayer is made is more preferable. Such scheme is more expensive two-trumpet, but it is more convenient for thin hydraulic control.
«For the hidden distributing where reliability and protection against leakages is important, I recommend to use pipes from the sewed polyethylene. They have service life till 50-70 years, easily and are quickly mounted on a fitting and blooming rings. This technology provides stably high quality of connection. The human factor is completely excluded as to make connection incorrectly it is almost impossible», – Nikita Panov («The comfortable house») speaks.
Mistake No. 6. To change radiators needlessly
Contrary to a popular belief, at modernization of system of heating at all it is not necessary to hurry with replacement of classical pig-iron radiators. «Before modern steel, bimetallic and aluminum devices of heating became popular, in private housing construction pig-iron radiators and self-made registers from the steel pipes, connected by crossing points were widely used, – Dmitry Lebedev («Tells systems for the house»). – Service life of steel registers depends on quality of materials and skill of welders. Pig-iron radiators in the closed systems with low working pressure can work decades with hardly any trouble at all. So change them for modern analogs more often for esthetic reasons».
If nevertheless there is a desire to replace out-of-date batteries, Nikita Panov («The comfortable house») recommends to establish steel panel products. In his opinion, in the private house there is no sense to use the bimetallic radiators calculated on high working pressure in the central systems of heating. Also the expert considers obligatory installation before radiators of thermostatic valves. They allow to regulate number of the heat-carrier passing through the device of heating and by that to establish comfortable temperature in a concrete room to within 0,5-1,0oC.
Mistake No. 7. To connect "heat-insulated floor" to the general contour of heating
The vast majority of owners of country real estate today get "heat-insulated floors" as they considerably raise comfort level. Under the certificate of experts, clients plan to mount "heat-insulated floors" in a bathroom, in kitchen, in the nursery or in a bedroom more often. And thus commit the same mistakes.
Nikita Panov («The comfortable house») notes that very often for "heat-insulated floors" the separate contour with automatic equipment and the circulating pump does not become, and the equipment connect directly on a heating contour that is inadmissible. The temperature of floors should not exceed 40oC, and in a heating contour the heat-carrier during the same time can be hot 80oC. This situation try to leave, underestimating a temperature mode of a copper to 50/60oC, as a result it leads to a "heat-insulated floor" overheat to uncomfortable temperature, and radiators do not consult with the task, remaining cold.
«Many producers offer ready decisions for "heat-insulated floor", – Dmitry Lebedev («Tells systems for the house»). – So, we use the Italian mixing knots supplied with a seat for circulating pumps and built-in temperature regulators, providing an optimum temperature mode regardless of heat-carrier temperature in the general contour».
Experts note that if the system of "heat-insulated floor" is in dynamics – that is on a collector there are thermoelectric drives and there is a pokomnatny adjustment of temperature – favourably to establish the intellectual circulating pumps ALPHA2. «When the drive blocks a branch on a collector, hydraulic resistance of a contour increases, – Ekaterina Semyonova ("GRUNDFOS") explains. – So, the pump ALPHA2 thanks to the built-in sensor of pressure will feel changes in system and by means of the AUTOAdapt function will reduce the frequency of rotation. The equipment will not pump over the closed branches, and thus it will turn out to reach economy of the electric power».
We are inclined to forget about equipment who works regularly and does not create problems. Many do not reflect that the heating copper demands service, and the system of pipelines and radiators need to be washed out periodically. The councils given in article will help to reconstruct not simply competently heating system, but also it is correct to maintain it. Warm to you winters!